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Water Production

Early excess water production occurs in structurally low wells. This is characteristic of a water-drive reservoir, and, provided the water is encroaching in a uniform manner, nothing can or should be done to restrict this encroachment, as the water will probably provide the most efficient displacing mechanism possible.

If the reservoir has one or more lenses of very high permeability, then the water may be moving through this more permeable zone. In this case, it may be economically feasible to perform remedial operations to shut off this permeable zone producing water. It should be realized that in most cases the oil that is being recovered from a structurally low well will be recovered from wells located higher on the structure and any expenses involved in remedial work to reduce the water-oil ratio of structurally low wells may be needless expenditures.

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Gas-Oil Ratio

There is normally little change in the producing gas-oil ratio during the life of the reservoir. This is especially true if the reservoir does not have an initial free gas cap. Pressure will be maintained as a result of water encroachment and therefore there will be relatively little gas released from this solution.

Ultimate Oil Recovery

Ultimate recovery from water-drive reservoirs is usually much larger than recovery under any other producing mechanism. Recovery is dependent upon the efficiency of the flushing action of the water as it displaces the oil. In general, as the reservoir heterogeneity increases, the recovery will decrease, due to the uneven advance of the displacing water. The rate of water advance is normally faster in the zones of high permeability. This results in earlier high water-oil ratios and consequent earlier economic limits. Where the reservoir is more or less homogeneous, the advancing waterfront will be more uniform, and when the economic limit, due primarily to high water-oil ratio, has been reached, a greater portion of the reservoir will have been contacted by the advancing water. Ultimate oil recovery is also affected by the degree of activity of the water drive. In a very active water drive where the degree of pressure maintenance is good, the role of solution gas in the recovery process is reduced to almost zero, with maximum advantage being taken of the water as a displacing force. This should result in maximum oil recovery from the reservoir. The ultimate oil recovery normally ranges from 35% to 75% of the original oil in place.

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