(i) A spherical mirror is a part of a spherical reflecting surface. When the reflection takes place from the inner surface and outer surface is polished or silvered, the mirror is known as concave mirror. When the reflection takes place from the outer surface and the inner surface is polished or silvered, the mirror is known as convex mirror.
(ii) The centre of curvature of a mirror is the centre of the spherical surface of which the mirror is a part.
(iii) The radius of curvature R is the radius of spherical surface of which the mirror is a part.
(iv) The pole of the mirror is the centre of the mirror point.
(v) The principal axis is the line joining the centre of curvature C with the pole P of the mirror.
(vi) The aperture is the diameter of the mirror.
(vii) The principal focus is the point on the principal axis, through which a ray of light parallel to the principal axis, after reflection, passes (in case of concave mirror) or appears to pass (in case of concave mirror).
(viii) Focal length is the distance between the pole P and the principal focus F. It is represented by f (distance PF in figure). For a spherical mirror of small aperture, the focal length is half of the radius of curvature (f = R/2).
(ix) The law of reflection is valid for reflections from spherical mirrors i.e. angle of incidence I = angle of reflection r.
(x) Mirror formula: For all spherical mirrors.
where u = distance of the object from the pole of
mirror, v = distance of the image from the pole of
mirror, f = focal length of the mirror and R = radius of curvature the mirror.
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