Economic importance of gymnosperm
Gymnosperms are the group of plants whose seeds have no covering or they are not covered by fruit or ovary. Gymnosperms are found in the temperate zones as well as higher tropics. Gymnosperm trees find a variety of use especially for timber used in construction, obtaining resins as well as in paper manufacturing. Many Gymnosperm trees also have medicinal properties and yield essential oils.
Every plant undergoes cycle, that includes development from small to well developed larger and broader plant. Gymnosperm plants also undergo life cycle to become a mature plant and this life cycle shows dominant saprophytes and reduced gametophyte. In such plant; sexes are separate, hence can be monoceious and dioecious. Therefore, these are the plants with diverse characters where pollination occurs by landing of pollen directly on the ovules. Some of the examples of gymnosperm plants are: conifers (these are the most common gymnosperm alive), cycads (found in tropical and sub- tropical regions and produce cones and sporangia), gnetals (these are group of monophyletic family), ginkgo (dioceous plant with unprotected ovule).
Some of the Important Uses of Gymnosperms are:
1. These plants are very useful in making furniture’s and for other construction purposes.
2. They are the sources of food to animals and human.
3. The strong roots of gymnosperm prevent from soil erosion.
4. Gymnosperm plants are also scientifically important because they provide lots of evidence about the past.
5. Beside these points, gymnosperm is also used as lumber.
6. They are also used to make perfume, oil, nail polish and many more.
The stems of genus Cycas is a source of Sago which is consumed as food. Also Cycas plants have ornamental uses. The leaves of many Cycas plants are used in making brooms, hats, baskets.
Ephedra gerardianais used to obtain Ephedrin, an alkaloid used to treat Asthma, Bronchitis and various other respiratory disorders. The bark of Gnetum gnemon, G. latifolium and G. ula is used to obtain Fiber for making fishing nets and ropes. Ginkgo biloba is an ornamental plant which is widely worshipped in China and Japan.
In Pinophyta, taxus woods are used to obtain Timber for making Pencils. Taxus brevifoliais is a source of ‘Taxol’, an important medicine used for curing cancer. Coniferales are an excellent source of high grade soft wood which are resistant towards insects and fungus. These woods also have good durability and are of light weight. Agathis australis is the largest timber producing tree of the world. Some species also produce scented woods such as the heart wood of Cedrus deodara which are used in making doors, railway sleepers and boats. The wood obtained from Araucaria araucana is used for making airplanes and it’s propellers.
Conifers such as Pinus australis, P. caribaea are excellent producers of resins. Resins are used in various industries such as Varnishes, Plasters and Enamel Paint because they are resistant to decay. Agathis australis is used to obtain Copal which is a tougher non-elastic resin with no oil. Yellow And Orange colored resins called Sandarac are obtained from Callitris calcarata. It is mixed with metal varnishes and also used in glass and porcelain industries. Pinus suciniferatiled is a source of fossilized resin called Amber. Amber is used to make pipes and cigar holders as well as in jewellery. Pine trees such as Pinus palustris, P. pinea, P. roxburghii, are used to produce oleorosins and gum rosin which are brittle aromatic solids used to manufacture soaps, varnishes and printing ink. Abies balsameais is a source of Canada Balsam which has a refractive index same as that of glass. It is used for cementing lenses. Trees of Araucaria, Agathis, Dacrydium, Phyllocladus, Pinus, Picea and Sequoea are used to obtain Tannins. Tannins are a key component in leather industry.
Various species also produce aromatic oils and essential oils. Picea glauca and Tsuga canadensis are a source of oil of hemlock which is used as room spray and deodorant. Juniperus species, Pinus species are also used to obtain wood pulp to make paper.
Therefore, gymnosperm plants are very important and there are lot more in the topic that need to be learnt. There are many more importance of gymnosperm and assignments on this topic generally covers either its life cycle or its importance. Apart from this, finding out about importance of gymnosperm needs lots of research and understanding. To make your understanding and work easier feel free to take help from AssignmentHelpNet. Our Biology experts and highly qualified Botany tutors are available for the students all round the corner; they can switch to the site and get answers to all their queries. In fact, the assignments on gymnosperm and its importance are also well handled by the teachers here and they will provide students well framed and presentable assignments as per the requirement.