The discovery that DNA is the genetic material can be traced to experiments performed by Griffith, who showed that nonvirulent strains of bacteria could be genetically transformed with a substance derived from heat-killed pathogenic strain. Further evidence that DNA is the genetic material was obtained from Hershey and Chase in experiments with radio-labeled bacteriophage.
Regarding the flow of information from DNA, the Central dogma was proposed according to which information flows from DNA to RNA to protein.
First DNA is transcribed into an RNA intermediate and second, the mRNA is translated into proteins. Translation of mRNA requires RNA adaptor molecules called tRNAs.
Knowledge of the genetic code allows us to predict protein coding sequences from DNA sequences.
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