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Gene Regulation

The levels in gene regulation are

  1. Transcriptional level (formation of primary transcript)
  2. Processing level (regulation of splicing)
  3. Transport of m RNA from nucleus to the cytoplasm
  4. Translational level

The genes in a cell are expressed to perform a particular functions or a set of functions. In prokaryotes, control of the rate of transcription initiation is the predominant site for control of gene expression. In a transcription unit, the activity of RNA polymerase at a given promoter is in turn regulated by interaction with accessory proteins, which affects its ability to recognize start sites. These regulatory proteins can act both positively (activators) and negatively (repressors). The accessibility of promoter regions of prokaryotic DNA is in many cases regulated by interaction of proteins with sequences termed operators. The operator region is adjacent to the promoter elements in most operons and in most cases the sequences of the operator bind a repressor protein. Each operon has its specific operator and specific repressor. For example, lac operator is present only in lac operons and it interacts specifically with lac repressor only.

The main topics which are considered in molecular biology are discussed in brief as follows:

  1. Molecular Biology
  2. Mendel's Discoveries
  3. Nucleic Acids Convey Genetic Information
  4. The Structure Of DNA And RNA
  5. The Replication Of DNA
  6. Transcription
  7. Translation
  8. Gene Regulation
  9. DNA Damage and repair

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