The study of differences and similarities in genome structure and organization of different organisms is called comparative genomics. Its main objective is to understand the process of evolution and to convert the DNA sequence data into proteins of known functions.
are those set of homologous genes which are found in different organisms; they encode proteins having the same function. These evolve by direct vertical descent and have diverged by simply accumulating mutations.
are homologous genes within the same organism; these genes encode proteins that have related but nonidentical functions. They arise by gene duplication, followed by mutation accumulation, e.g., genes of globin family.
A combination of exons tends to encode o domain. New combination of exons is produced by recombination within the intervening sequences; this is called exon shuffling. It produces new genes that encode proteins with altered function.
Horizontal gene transfer-
It refers to the genetic exchange between different evolutionary lineages.
One of the most remarkable finding of genome sequencing is that the genomes of organisms differing remarkably in appearance may be quite similar. E.g. human and mice share about 97.5% of their DNA sequences that perform genetic functions.
SNPs (Single nucleotide polymorphisms) -
SNPs are single base positions in genomic DNA at which different nucleotides occur in different individuals of a population. Each nucleotide at such a position denotes an allele of the SNP.
Gene order comparisons-
It is one of a tool for developing molecular phylogeny. When the gene order in a given region of the genome of two organisms is comparable, they are termed as syntenic and the phenomenon is called synteny. A major benefit of synteny is that information on gene location from a highly mapped organism can be used to locate the corresponding gene in a poorly mapped relative.
Is a comparative analysis of genome sequences of related species to detect orthologous DNA sequences. It allows the discovery of genes and regulatory elements.
The main topics which are considered in Genomics And Proteonomics are discussed in brief as follows:
- Sequencing of Genomes
- Comparative Genomics
- Gene Prediction And Counting
- Genome Evolution And Functional Genomics
- Expression profiling And Transcriptome
- DNA Arrays
- Structural proteomics And Functional Proteomics
- Expression Proteomics And Sequence Allgnment
- Protein Structure And Structure And Structural Analysis
- Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis And Domain Fusion Method
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