A DNA array consists of a series of DNA sequences fixed as distinct spots on a suitable solid support, such as glass chip. The DNA arrays are of two types, the spotted DNA arrays and the printed oligonucleotide chips.
In case of spotted DNA arrays, each array has 106- 109 double-stranded DNA molecules.
The printed oligonucleotide chips are produced by a light-directed printing technology called photolithography. These chips have single-stranded oligonucleotide of20-25 bases. These oligos are synthesized directly on the chips. Each sequence is represented by a set of approximately 20 nonoverlapping oligonucleotides to reduce false positive results.
DNA microarrays are used for studying gene expression patterns.
Proteomics a relatively new term describes the set of proteins expressed in a cell at a given time; it uses technologies ranging from genetic analysis to mass spectrometry.
The goal of proteomics is to provide for each protein encoded in a genome, information about its function, structure, post-translational modifications, cellular localization, variants, and relationships to other proteins. The basic techniques in proteomics involve separating and identifying proteins isolated from cells.
Proteomics has a vast range of application and has been accordingly divided into different areas.
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