Analyzing And designing Jobs
Human Resource Management is a vital task to be performed by the management. It is the job of HRM to place the right man at the right place. For this, the employer needs to understand the job, design the job and check what kind of personnel needs to be placed at such job.
Thus it is the task of HR Management to analyze the jobs needed in the business and designing them to achieve efficiency and effectiveness.
To produce their given product or service, companies require a number of tasks to be performed. The tasks are grouped in various combinations to form jobs. Ideally, the tasks should be grouped in ways that help the organization to operate efficiently and obtain people with the right qualification to do the jobs well. This function involves the activities of job analysis and job design. Job analysis is the process of getting detailed information about jobs. Job design is the process of defining the way work will be performed and the tasks that a given job requires.
Job analysis is the function of obtaining information about a specific job, tasks involved in it, skill sets required and the other responsibilities and finding other pertinent information related to it. It forms the basis for the further designing of the job. Every individual is studied deeply and after analysis, it is further sent for designing. Job analysis helps in explaining the following two aspects:
- Job Description
- Job Specification
Process of Job Analysis:
- Gathering Information: The first and foremost step for Job analysis is gathering information. All the pertinent information related to the job is collected and compiled. It helps in the further analysis of the job.
- Analyzing the job and its requirements: From the information so obtained, it is found out what the job is necessary for and what are the functions it carries out. According to the functions it is seen that what are its requirements and what are the skills and qualifications required for doing the job. A complete report is made about the Job Analysis so done.
- Forming a Job Description and Job Specification: Once the job is analyzed and all the relevant information about its working is obtained; the job description and job specification is formed.
- Job Description refers to the information regarding the type of job, what work is to be done, how it is linked to other jobs, its location in hierarchy, responsibilities etc.
- Job Specification refers to the information about the employee required to do the job, his qualification, experience, communication skills, personality etc.
Methods of Job Analysis:
- Work optimization through Redesigning: Job analysis help in observing every minute detail about the jobs. As a result the job analysis function can find shortcomings in the existing processes and help in correcting them through redesigning the job i.e. reengineering the working process.
- Assisting Human Resource Management: Job analysis help in ascertaining the job requirements in the business and how they are to be filled. It formulates the number of employees or workforce required for the timely and efficient completion of the work. It helps the HR Management to formulate the recruitment plans.
- Forming the basis for selection: Job Analysis gives the details about the Job specification i.e. skills, qualifications, trainings, attitude etc. required in an employee to carry out the specific job. Thus it gives the basis to the selection committee to look for the candidate with the stated requirements
Job Design the process of how a particular job will be performed, what will be done and what are the tasks required for this. Job designing also consists of redesigning any existing job for a better and effective utilization of resources.
Approaches to Job Design:
- Job Extension: Job extension refers to the process of adjoining or adding specific small jobs to the existing job. These small tasks re related to the job itself. This helps in broadening the jobs and the responsibility attached to it. When the same person is doing all the tasks related to a job, he will be able to carry it out efficiently.
- Job Enlargement: Job enlargement refers to the task of broadening the whole job. Its aim is to remove duplicity of work and make the work more interesting. This kind of design requires more number of skills and there is more pressure and workload on the employee.
- Job Rotation: Job rotation is a method where employees are rotated among different jobs. Generally the employees are shifted from one department to another so that he can gain knowledge and experience about the other department as well. This helps in increasing the coordination among the employees.
- Job Enrichment: Job Enrichment refers to the task of making the job easier for the employee by granting him the decision making power, and a greater level of autonomy. This helps in increasing the efficiency of the employee and boosting his morale.
Why Job Designing?
Job Designing helps in the alignment of the business goals with its processes. Job Designing helps in resolving answers to various questions. Such as:
- How to handle Excessive Working Hours
- Work Overload
- Work Under load
- Job Responsibility
- Work Overlapping
Thus, Job Analyzing and Designing is a vital aspect of human resource management and it should be carried out with utmost care.
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