The immune system is a versatile defense system that has evolved to protect animals from invading pathogenic microorganisms. It generates an enormous variety of cells and molecules capable of specifically recognizing and eliminating an apparently limitless variety of foreign invaders. The immune system is highly specific.
In present time it can be clearly noticed that every individual generally falls the victim of many viruses an infectious diseases. But whatever is the case, if we don’t take any medicine we can observe that after 2 days or a week some of the viral infection itself gets vanish away or get completely cured with time. Suppose we had a cut in our hand, if we don’t apply medicine, after some days the wound itself gets healed.
This is because our system response to the infection thus protecting our body from any kind of diseases. Hence, this is dealt by immunology. Immunology is the subject or a field of biomedical where students get to learn about the response of body against any pathogens. Our body possesses a system that provides resistance against microbes and infections.
Immunology has been lately introduced in the curriculum of students pursuing biology so as to make them aware about the pathogens and the possible methods that can be taken to avoid from falling the victim of any dangerous diseases. Our body already has some of the substances that help in proper functioning of the system. In case if any foreign particle or antigenic substance enter the system, our body quickly response so as the provide resistance and keep body function in proper way. Here, immune system function basically in two ways, first one is recognization and the other is response. First it recognizes the foreign particles and secondly it generates response against them. Our body has capability to distinguish between self component from non- self. Even if there is slight changes in the self cell, immune system also generate response against those cells. The immune response can be of two types:
Humoral response: also known as antibody generated response. It involves B cells that recognize antigen and thus generate the response.
Cell-mediated response: it involves T cells that response to cell displaying aberrant MHC marker.
Two words are frequently encountered in this subject, antibodies and antigens; these both are proteins but with difference in functions. Antibodies are present within the system for its protection whereas Antigen is generally the foreign substances disturbing body from proper functioning. Two terms need to be very clear before going for the depth study of this subject: innate and adaptive immunity, these two terms are important in the entire syllabus of immunology.
Innate immunity: it is the immediate response of the body against any pathogens. This type of resistance is conferred by the antibodies and some special cells that help in the defense against harmful pathogens. This immunity is for a short period of time and hence no memory is generated. Therefore, in future when same pathogens attack the person again, complete process comes in play to protect against antigenic substance.
Adaptive immunity: it is the response that comes into action after innate immunity. The immunity conferred is for long time and memory is generated in case if an individual is attacked by same pathogen, body response quickly and helps cure the diseases in no time.
Similarly, there are many other terms that has different meaning yet they are important in order to understand the subject in depth. Overall immune system is a complex process were cells and different system of the body work in coordinated way so as to protect infidel from unnecessary attacks of the diseases.
This field of study helps to find out regarding the cause of any diseases and the ways immune system function in every organism so as to design various therapy or drugs for the treatments. Immune system is very important for our body and without the working of immune system, it is almost impossible for us to survive on this earth.
Immunology deals with many topics like that of antibodies, MHC, Compliment system, Vaccines and many more that are the result of present and past researches.
Though at initial level, immunology is a single subject but at the higher levels it is a complete area of study. One can become researcher, lecturer or job holder or else they can even find a desired job in respective industry dealing with production and use of medicine.
Since immunology is a recent branch, students can have maximum opportunity if they study well and concentrate in every portion of the topic. Presently, any field in biology can be interestingly studied through online sites that offer not only the well arranged content but also some videos to demonstrate the experiments and working of our system against invading pathogens. This visual technique helps in easy grasping of the information and thus remembering it for longer time.
Science is the field that requires handwork and patience. Hence, no matter whichever subject is pursued in later future, but students must be well prepared for a long journey, so as to establish a better career. Since, students from this field are always trying to study and research news things, it is expected that the treatment for HIV and necessary drugs will soon be identified and it will be soon possible to treat AIDS.