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Chemical Engineering Help With Heat Transfer

2.2 Heat Transfer:

Heat transfer is the transfer of heat from a hotter object to a cooler object. When an object or fluid is at a different temperature than surrounding or another object, transfer of thermal energy, also known as heat transfer, or heat exchange, occurs in such a way that the body and the surroundings reach equilibrium. Heat transfer always occurs from a higher-temperature object to a cooler temperature one as described by the Clausius statement. Heat transfer can never be stopped but it can be slowed.


Conduction is the transfer of heat by direct contact of matter particles. The transfer of energy could be primarily by elastic impact as in fluids or by diffusion of free electrons as predominant in metals. Heat is transferred by conduction when adjacent atoms vibrate or as electrons move. Conduction is greater in solids due constant contact. In liquids (except liquid metals) and gases, the molecules are usually further apart and thus low conduction.

Heat conduction is analogous to diffusion of particles into a fluid. This type of heat diffusion differs from mass diffusion in behavior, as it can occur in solids whereas mass diffusion occurs mostly in fluids.
Chemistry Assignment Help Order Now Metals like copper, platinum, gold, iron, etc. are generally the best conductors of thermal energy.


Convection is the transfer of heat energy from a solid surface and the nearby liquid or gas in motion or vice-versa. The convective heat transfer increases with faster fluid motion.

Types of Convective Heat Transfer:

Natural Convection: is when the fluid motion is caused by forces which result from the density variations because variations of temperature in the fluid.

Forced Convection: is when the fluid is made to flow over the surface by external source such as fans, compressors and pumps and thus creating an artificially induced convection current.

Formula for Rate of Heat Transfer by convection can be given as:

q = hA(Ts− Tb)

A - Surface area of heat transfer

Ts - Surface temperature

Tb - temperature of the fluid at bulk temperature
 h - The constant heat transfer coefficient

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