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10.9 Voids

In crystal lattice, following are the main voids

Linear void

This type of void is formed when two large atoms (anions) are arranged linearly. A small atom (cation) can occupy this void.
linear void

Trigonal planer void

Void space among three atoms of same size in a plane is known as trigonal planer void
trigonal-planer-void

Tetrahedral planer void

If one atom is placed over three other atoms which are in contact, then space available among four atoms is called tetrahedral void.
tetrahedral-planer-void

Square planer void

Void space available between four atoms in contact is square planer void
square planer void

Octahedral void

It we put four atoms in a plane which are in contact and put one atom above and one below then, void available among six atoms is called octahedral void
octahedral-void

Cubical void

If we put four atoms in one plane which are in contact and put another four atom over it, then space available is cubical void.
cubical void

Tetrahedral void in fcc or ccp

In the given fc.c. unit cell, it we consider any corner then there will be three faces associated with it. Tetrahedral void is formed by four atoms, three from faces and one from corner. Because there are eight centres in unit cell hence there will be eight tetrahedral voids. If we divide the unit cell into eight equal small cubes, then centre of small cube will correspond to the centre of tetrahedral void from given figure let us consider two specified cubes A and B. By considering these cubes we can prove the location of tetrahedral void
tetrahedral void in fcc

Octahedral voids in fcc

For octahedral void consider any four atoms from four faces, these will construct a square planer void, now if we put other two face atoms above and below to the four atoms, then these six will form octahedral void. Apart from the centre octahedral voids are also present at edge centre, each edge centred octahedral void contributes ¼ of its volume to the unit cell. Hence total contribution to the unit cell will be
octahedral voids in fcc
octahedral voids

Tetrahedral and octahedral voids in hcp

In hcp total number of tetrahedral voids = 12

In hcp total number of octahedral voids = 6

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