Thermophoresis is also called thermomigration, thermodiffusion, or Sort effect or Ludwig-Soret effect and is a phenomenon observed when a mixture of two or more types of motile particles (particles able to move) are subjected to the force of temperature gradient. The phenomenon is observed at scale of one millimeter or less.
Impurity ions may move from cold side of a semiconductor wafer towards hot side, since the higher temperature makes transition structure required for atomic jumps more achievable. The diffusive flux may occur in either direction, either up or down the temperature gradient, dependent on materials involved. Thermophoretic force has been used in commercial precipitators for the applications similar to electrostatic precipitators. It is exploited in the manufacturing of optical fiber in processes like vapor deposition and can be important as the transport mechanism in fouling
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