The separation of liquids and gases are commonly accomplished using membrane separation methods. This includes dialysis, reverse osmosis, and ultra filtration. Hybrid and more exotic membrane methods that have also proven effective are electro dialysis, helium separation through glass, the hydrogen separation through Palladium and alloy membranes, immobilized solvent and liquid-surfactant membranes.
The permeation of liquids and gases through polymeric membranes occurs where a constituent passes through the membrane by diffusion and sorption by fluid on other side of the membrane. The driving force is achieved either by the pressure or concentration difference across membrane.
In general, the membrane separation techniques are especially useful in separating:
1. Mixtures of the similar chemical compounds,
2. Mixtures of the thermally unstable components since no heating is needed, and
3. In conjunction with the conventional separation methods such as using membranes to break the azeotropic mixtures before feeding them to a distillation column.
In membrane separation, spent metal removal fluids are pumped from a process tank at a moderate pressure and rapid flow Permeable Membrane
to the series of membranes. This flow is referred to as the feed rate. The large molecules and virtually all petroleum products are blocked at membrane surface and the compounds that do not pass through the membrane are referred to as reject.
The water-like solutions that pass through membrane are referred to as the "permeate" and rate at which permeate flows through the membrane is called the flux rate.
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