Electrophoresis is the best-known electrokinetic phenomenon and was discovered by Reuss in 1807. It was observed that clay particles dispersed in water get migrated under the influence of an applied electric field. Electrophoresis is the motion of the dispersed particles relative to fluid under influence of an electric field that is space constant/uniform. Alternatively, similar motion in a space variable/non-uniform electric field is called dielectrophoresis. Electrophoresis takes place because particles dispersed in a fluid almost always carry electric surface charge or free electrons. An electric field exerts Coulombs electrostatic forces on the particles through these charges. Recent molecular dynamics simulations suggest that surface charge is not always necessary for electrophoresis and even neutral particles can show electrophoresis due to specific molecular structure of water at the interface.
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