Objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye are viewed through microscope. The technical use of microscope to study object and samples is known as microscopy. It is of the following types:
Light microscopy involves passing of visible light through multiple lenses to allow a magnified view of the sample. It is further done in various ways such as bright field, oblique illumination, dark field, dispersion staining, phase contrast, differential interference contrast, fluorescence, etc.
In order to gain higher and better resolution wavelength smaller than 0.2 micometers is used in electron microscopes. It is divided in two categories, transmission electron microscopy (TEM resolution-0.05 nanometer) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
This is a sub-diffraction technique. Its example are atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunneling microscopy, and the photonic force microscopy. In atomic force microscopy, the sharp tip of the microscopic probe attached to a flexible cantilever is drawn across an uneven surface. Electrostatic force and Van der Waals interaction between the tip and the sample produces a force that moves the probe up and down. It is used to study single membrane protein molecules.
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