Biological safety in laboratories is achieved by a combination of mechanisms that is divided into standard laboratory practices and containment strategies. A strict adherence to a set of standard laboratory practices that are generally used in microbial laboratories is the basic principle of containment.
a) Physical containment- Physical containment consists of the use of special laboratory design, equipments and special operational procedures to restrict the number of organisms accidently released during normal laboratory operations and to prevent infection of laboratory workers.
b) Biological containment- Biological containment specifically aims at making such genetic changes in GMOs that reduce the hazard from these organisms when they are accidently or deliberately released into the environment. Biological containment id based on the vector (plasmid, organelle or virus) used for the construction of recombinant DNA, and the host (bacterial, plant, or animal cell) in which the vector is propagated in the laboratory; therefore it is also called HV system (host-vector system).
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