In dealing with gases at a very low pressure, the ideal gas relationship is a convenient and generally satisfactory tool. Real gas equation is usually valid at higher pressure and lower temperature. Basically, the magnitude of deviations of real gases from the conditions of the ideal gas law increases with increasing pressure and temperature and varies widely with the composition of the gas. Real gases behave differently than ideal gases. The reason for this is that the perfect gas law was derived under the assumption that the volume of molecules is insignificant and that no molecular attraction or repulsion exists between them. This is not the case for real gases. In order to express a more exact relationship between the variables p, V, and T, a correction factor called the gas compressibility factor, gas deviation factor, or simply the z-factor, must be introduced into ideal gas equation to account for the departure of gases from ideality. The equation has the following form:
PV = znRT
Where the gas compressibility factor z is a dimensionless quantity
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