Vector is a term that can be generally heard or encountered in major branches of biology like: molecular biology, cell biology, micro-biology etc. Hence, vector is molecule of DNA that is used for the transfer of genetic material from one cell to the other.
Elaborating the above definition; as we know that if the organism is smaller or unicellular, the structure of its genome will be comparably simple to that of other complex living body. So, to conduct study on small segment of DNA obtained from complex genome is not an easy task. Hence, in order to study any specific segment of DNA of higher organism, vectors are used and this process is termed as recombinant DNA technology.
Vectors are mainly classified into two different types; they are:
1. Cloning vector: The word cloning means to make number of copies or clone. Hence, cloning vectors are used to make number of clones of specific DNA segment inside the host cell. Example of cloning vector includes: virus, phage and plasmid. Hence, cloning vectors are used in different biological experiments; such as: creating DNA library.
2. Expression vector: Expression vectors are used for the expression of those gene or segment that are inserted into the host organism.
There are number of examples of organisms that are used as vector. The brief idea on some of them are listed below:
1. Plasmid: Plasmid are most commonly used as cloning vectors in different experiments of molecular biology. These are double stranded, circular DNA molecule that have origin of replication, restriction enzyme, multiple cloning site, markers, and restriction site. The example of plasmids are: pUC9, pUC12, pBR322 etc.
2. Cosmid: Cosmid is the combination of plasmid and lambda which means that it have cos site from lambda and ori from plasmid. It is small in size and contains some segments like: ori, selectable marker, Ampicillin resistant gene and a cos site.
3. Bacteriophage: It is also used as vector in different biological experiments. Since bacteriophage are larger than the plasmid, hence it endeavor an advantage in cloning when the fragment to be cloned is larger in size than the insertion space available in plasmid.
This is a basic idea on vectors used in the experiments conducted in molecular biology. The topics is elaborated with process, structure and uses of different vectors in experiments and their importance in controlling diseases or designing different drugs.
The topic of vector is quite extensive that includes information on every plasmid, cosmid or bacteriophage vector. In fact there are many other examples of vectors that are biologically important. So, if you are having any doubt in this topic, you can give a call to our tutor. Framing assignment on vectors requires a particular period of time and structured concept in the topic.
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