It is the product of the molar concentrations of the ions in a saturated solution of an sparingly soluble salt with each concentration term raised to the power equal to the number of times that ion appears in balanced equation that represents equilibrium. It is denoted by Ksp.
In saturated solution [AxBy] = constant
Applications of Solubility Product
(i) It helps in predicting the formation of a precipitate.
If ionic product > Ksp, precipitation occurs and if ionic product < Ksp no precipitate is formed.
(ii) Calculation of solubility of sparingly soluble salt - let solubility of salt AxBy in water at a particular temperature is S mole per litre. Then at equilibrium.
e.g. for AgCl
Ksp = S2
(iii) In qualitative analysis
The separation and identification of various basic radicals into different groups is based upon (a) solubility product principle and (b) common ion effect.
(iv) Purification of common salt.
Saturated solution of impure common salt is prepared and insoluble impurities are filtered off. HCl gas is passed through this solution. Thus, ionic product of exceeds the Ksp and pure NaCl precipitates out from the solution. This process is called salting out.
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