HACCP seven principles:
Principle 1: Conducting a hazard analysis. Plants determine the safety hazards and identify the preventive measures the plant can apply to control these hazards.
Principle 2: Identifying the critical control points (CCP). A critical control point (CCP) is a point, step or procedure in a manufacturing process at which control can be applied and thus a safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to an acceptable level.
Principle 3: Establishing critical limits for each critical control point. A critical limit is the maximum or minimum say optimum value to which hazard must be controlled at a critical control point so as to prevent, eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level.
Principle 4: Establishing critical control point monitoring requirements. Monitoring activities are necessary for ensuring that the process is under control at each critical control point and within limits.
Principle 5: Establishing corrective actions. These are actions to be taken when monitoring indicates a deviation from an established critical limit or CCP is uncontrolled. The final rule requires a plant's HACCP plan for identifying the corrective actions to be taken if a critical limit is not met and corrective actions are intended of ensuring that no product injurious to health or otherwise adulterated as a result of the deviation enters commerce.
Principle 6: Establishing record keeping procedures. The HACCP regulation requires all plants to maintain certain documents, including its hazard analysis and written HACCP plan, and records and also documenting the monitoring of critical control points, critical limits, verification activities, and the handling of processing deviations.
Principle 7: Establishing procedures for ensuring the HACCP system is working as intended. Validation ensures that the plants do what they were designed to do within safety limits and they are successful in ensuring the production of safe product. Plants will be required to validate their own HACCP plans and these will be only reviewed.
While in some cases safety risk can be eliminated, in most cases a certain degree of safety risk must be accepted and in order to quantify expected accident costs before the fact, the potential consequences of an accident, and the probability of occurrence must be considered. Assessment of risk is made by combining the severity of consequence with the likelihood of occurrence in a matrix and risks that fall into the "unacceptable" category (e.g., high severity and high probability) must be mitigated by some means to reduce the level of safety risk.
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