Any specified portion of universe under investigation is called system.
Outside the system is called surroundings.
System + Surroundings = Universe
Types of System
(i) Open system: The system which can exchange matter as well as energy with the surroundings. For example, a liquid kept in an open flask.
(ii) Closed System: A system which can exchange only energy with the surroundings. For example: a liquid in a closed vessel.
(iii) Isolated System: A system which can neither exchange matter nor energy with the surroundings. For example: a thermally insulated flask.
It is an operation by which a system undergoes a change from one state to another.
(i) Isothermal Process: A process in which the temperature remains constant throughout its course is called isothermal process.
i.e. DT = 0
(ii) Adiabatic Process: A process during which no heat is exchanged between the system and the surroundings is called adiabatic process.
i.e. dq = 0
(iii) Isobaric Process: A process in which pressure of the system remains constant is called isobaric process.
i.e. DP = 0
(iv) Isochoric Process: A process in which volume of the system remains constant is called isochoric process.
i.e. DV = 0
(v) Cyclic Process: A process during which state of the system does not change is called cyclic process.
(vi) Reversible Process: A process in which the driving force is infinite similarly greater than the opposing force is called reversible.
(vii) Irreversible Process: A process in which direction can not be altered by small changes in variables like P, V, T etc. is called irreversible process.
(i) Properties which depend upon mass are called extensive properties e.g., mass, volume, energy etc.
(ii) Properties which do not depend on the amount of matter are called intensive properties, e.g. pressure, temperature, density.
The fundamental property which is independent of path is called state function.
Work is defined as energy transferred to or from a system with reference to the surrounding. If an object is displaced through a distance dx against a force F, then the amount of work is defined as w = F × dx.
Types of Work:
(i) Gravitational work = mgh
m = mass of body
g = acceleration due to gravity
h = height
(ii) Electrical work = Charge × Potential
= q × V
(iii) Mechanical work = Pext (V2 – V1)
= Pext. DV
Work done on the system, w = + ve
Work done by the system, w = – ve
The energy that flows across the boundary of a system during state of difference in temperature between system and surroundings and flows from higher to lower temperature is called heat.
Heat absorbed or evolved,
DQ = msDt
m = mass
s = sp. heat
Dt = temp. Difference
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