bacteria typically have a single circular chromosome consisting of a single circular molecule of DNA with associated proteins. Regulating protein synthesis at the gene level is energy-efficient because proteins are synthesized only as they are needed. Constitutive enzymes produce products at a fixed rate. Eg. – genes for the enzymes in glycolysis.
In bacteria, a group of coordinately regulated structural genes with related metabolic functions, plus the promoter and operator sites that control their transcription, are called an operon.
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