Pituitary –hypothalamus forms a single functional unit which is the most influencial endocrine system in the body. Pituitary has two lobe anterior lobe secrete
1. Thyroid stimulating harmone (TSH)
2. Adrenocorticotrophic hormon (ACTH)
4. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
5. Leutilising Hormone (LH)
Giantism occur due to overproduction of GH during adolescence ans Acromegaly due to overproduction of Gh after epiphysial closure. Deficiency of GH leads to dwarfism. TSH stimulate the thyroid gland, FSH act on testis and ovary, under the affect of Prolactin ducts of mammary gland gives rise to lobules of alveoli. Oxytocin is called milk let down hormon. Action of vasopressin increases thrust.
Thyroid gland secrete mainly 1. Thyroxine(T4)
Any enlargement of thyroid gland is called GOITER. Hypothyroidism leads to cretinism in children and myxoedema in adults. Hyperthyroidism causes exophthalmic goiter or Thyrotoxicosis
Parathyroid hormone increases the blood calcium level and decreases phosphate level. hyperParathyroidism leads to osteomalacia and hypoParathyroidism leads to tetany etc.
Adrenal gland has cortex and medula. Cortex part secrete
3. Sex steroids Cushing syndrome occurs due to sustained high level of glucocorticoids. Conn’s disease is due to prolonged excessive secretion of aldosteron. Addison’s disease is due to reduced secretion of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids
The adrenal medulla secretes
The pancreas is a mixed gland its endocrine part secrete
1. Glucagon from alpha cells it antagonizes the affect of insulin
2. insulin from beta cells , it increases the glucose entery into cells
3. Somatostatin from delta cells