Training Evaluation Models

Training Evaluation Models (Kirkpatrick, Brinkerhoff, Phillips)

Employee proficiency is an essential factor that most companies are after to gain a competitive advantage over competitors. Training is significant for organizations as it equips employees with the proper knowledge and skills required in the global market. Accordingly, an appropriate training strategy will enable companies to increase their final output in the long run. There are three types of training evaluation models that companies can employ to assess the effectiveness of their training programs. These include Brinkerhoff, Kirkpatrick, and Phillips's training evaluation models. Evaluating the employee potential and the outcome of new training strategies in an organization is of great importance. The three training evaluation models are typically the most effective assessment means companies can employ. Business organizations should effectively use these evaluation models to determine the effectiveness of their training programs and assess their impact on the company’s future endeavors.

The Kirkpatrick Model is a globally known training evaluation model introduced by Donald Kirkpatrick after subsequent revisions of previous findings. According to Morin and Samozino (2018), the model evaluates both informal and formal training modes and rates them alongside four ranks of criteria that include reaction, erudition, behavior, and results. This notion implies that the Kirkpatrick Model involves four basic rating levels in the training evaluation. The first level of the Kirkpatrick Model is the reaction, where the employees' response, such as satisfaction with the new training, is measured. The second level is the learning stage, where managers evaluate employee understanding of the training (Vance & Parskey, 2020). Typically, aspects such as an increase in skills, knowledge, and experience are considered. The third level of the Kirkpatrick evaluation model is the behavior stage, where managers evaluate the rate of behavior change among the employees after the new training process. Accordingly, the final stage of the Kirkpatrick evaluation model is performance the performance level.

The Brinkerhoff training evaluation model was introduced by Robert Brinkerhoff, where he outlined evaluation techniques based on successes and failures of a training program. The model examines the effectiveness of organizational change based on six basic questions. For instance, the model examines the effective sections of the training program that perform better than others. Again, it evaluates the surrounding occupational factors and their impact on the company. According to Vance and Parskey (2020), the Brinkerhoff Model studies and answers the above questions to assess the effectiveness of the new training programs through various strategies. Brinkerhoff evaluates the positivity of the training program and the outliers accompanying it based on organizational objectives. Accordingly, the Success Case Method is employed to identify the least effective cases in a training program and revising them in detail. Consequently, in the 'successes versus failures' comparison, the managers employ proper strategies to ensure success in future endeavors.

Phillips is another training evaluation model that many companies employ. According to Morin and Samozino (2018), the Phillips Model proposes that once a training strategy is executed, a chain of outcomes should occur. This is because the training program equips employees with new knowledge and skills that positively impact the organization, ultimately ending in Returns On Investments (ROI). Phillips introduces the fifth level to Kirkpatrick’s four-level analysis that relates training cost and the company’s overall performance. The ROI is calculated using data from the fourth level of the Kirkpatrick Model, converting it to financial values, and then relating the values with the cost incurred when setting the training program (Vance & Parskey, 2020). Typically, this model evaluates the effectiveness of a training program by examining the returns realized by employing the new training program (Ghosh, 2020). The returns are attained by computing the net program benefits over program costs that a company employs. Accordingly, managers use the ROI to relate the effect of the training program to the company’s performance.

Talent Development Reporting (TDR) is an industry-led enterprise established to better administer the learning and advancement in specific and other key talent developments in general. For the corporate training director intending to collect data for TDR, the Phillips training evaluation model will be the most effective (Vance & Parskey, 2020). One of the basic aspects the director must consider is the employee potential before the training program. The Phillips evaluation model assesses the effectiveness of the training program in five levels that include reaction, improvement, behavior, outcomes, and ROI (Blaga et al., 2021). The director will be able to assess the impact of a particular training program on the organization. Generally, the corporate training director will identify talented employees based on the outcomes in the five assessment levels (Ghosh, 2020). Thus, among the three training models, Phillips is the most effective in collecting data for TDR that the director will require as he will use the five levels of assessment to identify talented workers.

In conclusion, most global companies are vigilant in evaluating the effectiveness of their training programs through the application of three key models that include Phillips, Kirkpatrick, and Brinkerhoff. Kirkpatrick's evaluation model examines the effectiveness of a training program by four-level ratings. On the other hand, the Brinkerhoff Model evaluates the value of a training program through the ultimate outcomes it brings to the company. Lastly, the Phillips Model examines a training program by calculating ROI to assess the returns brought by the training program. Accordingly, evaluating employee potential is significant to any company as it typically reflects its performance. Hence, the Phillips evaluation model is the most effective for the corporate training director in collecting data needed for TDR.


Ghosh, S. (2020). Training evaluation models: An analysis. Psychology and Education Journal, 57(9), 6689-6695. Retrieved 10 August 2020, from:

Morin, J. B., & Samozino, P. (Eds.). (2018). Biomechanics of training and testing: Innovative concepts and simple field methods. Springer.

Vance, D., & Parskey, P. (2020). Measurement Demystified: Creating your l & d measurement, analytics, and reporting strategy. American Society for Training and Development.