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The Constitution

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CHAPTER 2: The Constitution

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. The majority of American colonists came from

a.

Germany.

b.

France and Ireland.

c.

England and Scotland.

d.

Spain.

e.

Sweden and the Netherlands.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 24

  1. The colonies in North America that were settled before the American Revolution

a.

were located along the Atlantic seaboard of today’s United States.

b.

were established on the west coast of what became the United States.

c.

stretched along the northern tier of what became the United States.

d.

were restricted to the southern part of what became the United States.

e.

stretched from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 24

  1. In the ____, the Pilgrims set up a government and promised to obey its laws.

a.

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

b.

Massachusetts Body of Liberties

c.

Mayflower Compact

d.

Pennsylvania Charter of Privileges

e.

U.S. Constitution

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 25

  1. The Mayflower Compact

a.

established the Articles of Confederation.

b.

was essentially a bill of rights.

c.

provided for the popular election of a governor and judges in an early settlement of Connecticut.

d.

was America’s first written constitution.

e.

was essentially a social contract.

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: 25

  1. America’s first written constitution, the ____, called for the laws to be made by an assembly of elected representatives from each town.

a.

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

b.

Massachusetts Body of Liberties

c.

Mayflower Compact

d.

Pennsylvania Charter of Privileges

e.

Pennsylvania Frame of Government

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 25

  1. Before the mid-1700s, the majority of American colonists

a.

were keen to break free of British colonial rule.

b.

despised the British monarchy.

c.

were loyal to the British monarch and viewed Britain as their homeland.

d.

were loyal to France.

e.

were secretly planning to declare their independence from Britain.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 26

  1. Following the British victory in the Seven Years’ War,

a.

the British relinquished their authority over the American colonies.

b.

the relationship between Britain and its American colonies was permanently altered.

c.

the British government repealed the taxes it had imposed on the American colonies.

d.

the French expanded their control over several southern colonies.

e.

most of the colonists were anxious to strengthen their ties to the British government.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 26

  1. The colonists began using the word American to describe themselves

a.

when the Pilgrims arrived in Plymouth, Massachusetts.

b.

when Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in North America, was founded.

c.

after writing the Articles of Confederation.

d.

after adopting the Declaration of Independence.

e.

in the aftermath of the Seven Years’ War.

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: 27

  1. In 1764, the British Parliament passed ____, which prompted a “nonimportation” movement that soon spread to several colonies.

a.

the Sugar Act

b.

the Stamp Act

c.

the “Intolerable Acts”

d.

the Coercive Acts

e.

taxes on glass, paint, and lead

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 27

  1. In 1765, the British Parliament passed the ____ Act, which imposed the first direct tax on the colonists.

a.

Income

b.

Sugar

c.

Stamp

d.

Importation

e.

Tea

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 27

  1. After the British Parliament passed the Stamp Act, James Otis, Jr. ____

a.

declared that there could be “no taxation without war.”

b.

wrote Common Sense.

c.

proposed that the colonies impose a sugar tax on Britain.

d.

declared that there could be “no taxation without representation.”

e.

wrote A Handbook for Dumping Tea.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 27

  1. In ____, anger over the taxes Britain had imposed on the colonies reached a climax at the Boston Tea Party.

a.

1732

b.

1773

c.

1776

d.

1781

e.

1786

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 27

  1. The British Parliament’s response to the ____was the passage of the Coercive Act(s), which closed Boston harbor and placed the government of Massachusetts under direct British control.

a.

Stamp Act

b.

Articles of Confederation

c.

Boston Tea Party

d.

Sugar Act

e.

Declaration of Independence

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 27

  1. Which of the following statements is not accurate?

a.

The First Continental Congress decided that the colonies should send a petition to King George III to explain their grievances.

b.

The Second Continental Congress urged the colonists to dress as Mohawk Indians and dump chests of British tea into Boston Harbor as a gesture of tax protest.

c.

The Second Continental Congress assumed the powers of a central government.

d.

The First Continental Congress required each colony to establish an army.

e.

In response to the Coercive Acts, the First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia in 1774.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 27-28

  1. On April 19, 1775, Redcoats fought against Minutemen in the towns of ____, the first battles of the American Revolution.

a.

Washington and Philadelphia

b.

Baltimore and Albany

c.

Plymouth and Jamestown

d.

Lexington and Concord

e.

Boston and Richmond

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 28

  1. ____classic pamphlet, Common Sense, presented a rousing argument in favor of independence and helped sever any remaining ties of loyalty to the British monarch.

a.

Alexander Hamilton’s

b.

Thomas Jefferson’s

c.

Benjamin Franklin’s

d.

Roger Sherman’s

e.

Thomas Paine’s

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: 28

  1. In his influential pamphlet, Common Sense, Thomas Paine

a.

contended that America could survive economically on its own and no longer needed its British connection.

b.

argued against breaking ties with Britain.

c.

urged the colonists to rethink their unhappiness with Britain, because America needed the strong central government of Britain in order to survive.

d.

denounced the Declaration of Independence.

e.

laid out the strategy for the Boston Tea Party.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 28

  1. The concepts expressed in the Declaration of Independence reflected European political philosophy. In particular, the theories of ____ provided philosophical underpinnings by which the American Revolution could be justified.

a.

John Locke

b.

James Otis, Jr.

c.

Patrick Henry

d.

Roger Sherman

e.

Philip Livingston

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 30

  1. As the colonies transformed themselves into sovereign states, republican sentiment was so strong in many of them that the ____became all-powerful.

a.

executive

b.

judiciary

c.

bureaucracy

d.

national government

e.

legislature

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: 30

  1. The Articles of Confederation, which served as the nation’s first national constitution, established the ____ as the central governing body.

a.

executive branch

b.

Congress of the Confederation

c.

Civil Committees

d.

Supreme Court

e.

First Continental Congress

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 31

  1. Under the Articles of Confederation, each state had ____ the unicameral assembly of representatives.

a.

one vote in

b.

two votes in

c.

one vote for each ambassador it sent to

d.

proportional representation (based on state population) in

e.

seven votes in

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 31

  1. The new nation, under the Articles of Confederation,

a.

could not declare war.

b.

could not enter into treaties and alliances.

c.

created a postal system.

d.

regulated interstate commerce.

e.

established a strong executive branch.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 32

  1. Under the Articles of Confederation,

a.

the central government could draft soldiers to form a standing army.

b.

there was a national judicial system.

c.

Congress had significant power to enforce its laws.

d.

Congress could not borrow money from the people.

e.

Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance.

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: 31-32

  1. Under the Articles of Confederation, the national government did not have the ability to prevent the various states from entering into agreements with foreign powers. Britain began negotiations with influential Vermonters with the aim of annexing the district of Vermont to

a.

Scotland.

b.

Tennessee.

c.

Canada.

d.

Louisiana.

e.

New Hampshire.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 32

  1. Indebted farmers in western Massachusetts seized county courthouses and disrupted debtors’ trials in 1786. An attack was also launched on the national government’s arsenal. This uprising, known as ____, was an important catalyst for change because it helped to convince many Americans that a true national government had to be created.

a.

Shays’ Rebellion

b.

the Boston Tea Party

c.

the Whiskey Rebellion

d.

the Rebellion of the Seven States

e.

Agrarian Revenge

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 32-33

  1. Shays’ Rebellion

a.

was a protest against the imposition of a tax on all sugar imported into the American colonies.

b.

was an indication to American political and business leaders that the national government under the Articles of Confederation was too weak.

c.

prompted the British Parliament to close Boston Harbor.

d.

was the first battle of the American Revolution.

e.

allowed the French to expand their control over several southern states.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 33

  1. The Philadelphia meeting that became the Constitutional Convention was called “for the sole and express purpose” of

a.

drafting a national constitution.

b.

electing a president.

c.

drafting the Bill of Rights.

d.

revising the Articles of Confederation.

e.

revising the Mayflower Compact.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 33-34

  1. Only ____ did not send any delegates to the Constitutional Convention.

a.

Georgia

b.

Connecticut

c.

Rhode Island

d.

New York

e.

New Jersey

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 34

  1. ____ was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention.

a.

John Adams

b.

Thomas Jefferson

c.

Patrick Henry

d.

John Locke

e.

James Madison

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: 34

  1. ____ did not attend the Constitutional Convention, because he “smelt a rat.”

a.

Patrick Henry

b.

George Washington

c.

Alexander Hamilton

d.

Robert Morris

e.

Benjamin Franklin

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 34

  1. ____ of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention owned slaves.

a.

None

b.

Only seven

c.

At least nineteen

d.

Most

e.

All

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 34

  1. For the most part, the delegates to the Constitutional Convention were

a.

representative of the population as a whole.

b.

uneducated.

c.

poor.

d.

from the best-educated and wealthiest classes.

e.

ordinary farmers and merchants.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 34

  1. The proposals of the ____ delegation immediately set the agenda for the Constitutional Convention.

a.

New Jersey

b.

New York

c.

Connecticut

d.

Virginia

e.

Massachusetts

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 34

  1. The ____ Plan that was proposed at the Constitutional Convention favored large states. It called for a legislature in which the number of representatives would be in proportion to each state’s population.

a.

New Jersey

b.

Georgia

c.

Pennsylvania

d.

Virginia

e.

South Carolina

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 34

  1. The ____ Plan that was proposed at the Constitutional Convention favored small states. It called for a legislature in which each state would have only one vote.

a.

New Jersey

b.

New York

c.

Connecticut

d.

Virginia

e.

Massachusetts

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 35

  1. The ____ Compromise called for a bicameral legislature with a lower chamber in which the number of representatives from each state would be determined by the number of people in that state, and an upper chamber that would have two members from each state.

a.

New Jersey

b.

Pennsylvania

c.

Connecticut

d.

Virginia

e.

North Carolina

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 35

  1. The Great Compromise at the Constitutional Convention

a.

resolved the issue of slavery.

b.

guaranteed land for Native Americans.

c.

was proposed by James Madison.

d.

was proposed by Thomas Jefferson.

e.

resolved the small-state/large-state controversy.

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: 35

  1. In a compromise reached during the Constitutional Convention, it was agreed that each slave would count as ____ of a person in determining representation in the House of Representatives.

a.

one-half

b.

three-fifths

c.

one-third

d.

two-thirds

e.

four-fifths

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 35

  1. The three-fifths compromise reached at the Constitutional Convention settled the deadlock between the

a.

eastern states and the western states over water rights.

b.

northern states and the southern states over export taxes.

c.

large states and the small states over the regulation of commerce.

d.

large states and the small states over how the president would be chosen.

e.

southern states and the northern states over how slaves would be counted in determining representation in Congress.

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: 35

  1. The delegates to the Constitutional Convention agreed that Congress could prohibit the importation of slaves into the country

a.

beginning in 1808.

b.

as soon as the Constitution was ratified.

c.

when all the states agreed that slaves would be given the right to vote.

d.

when the Civil War was over.

e.

if the people voted to abolish slavery.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 35

  1. In a compromise reached at the Constitutional Convention,

a.

slavery was prohibited.

b.

the importation of slaves into the country could be prohibited at a later date.

c.

the southern states agreed to slowly free their slaves.

d.

escaped slaves who fled to the northern states were considered free.

e.

domestic slave trading was abolished.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 35-36

  1. At the Constitutional Convention, the southern states agreed to let Congress have the power to regulate interstate commerce, as well as commerce with other nations, in exchange for the guarantee that

a.

the president would have significant power over intrastate commerce.

b.

the Supreme Court would be prohibited from hearing cases involving commerce.

c.

the northern states would not produce goods that would compete in the marketplace with goods produced in the southern states.

d.

no export taxes would be imposed on products exported by the states.

e.

the southern states would be exempt from federal taxes.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 36

  1. At the Constitutional Convention, the southern states agreed ____ in exchange for the guarantee that no export taxes would be imposed on products exported by the states.

a.

that a Supreme Court and other “inferior” federal courts could be established

b.

to create an independent executive

c.

that the president would have extensive appointment powers

d.

to make the president commander in chief of the army and navy

e.

to let Congress have the power to regulate interstate commerce, as well as commerce with other nations,

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: 36

  1. The Constitution provides that a federal official who commits ____may be impeached by the House of Representatives.

a.

“a Felony, Misdemeanor, or other Criminal transgression”

b.

“an Abuse of Presidential Authority”

c.

“Obstruction of Justice and failure to abide by the Law”

d.

“Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors”

e.

“Lack of Judgment, Crimes against the State, or an Abuse of Power”

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 36

  1. A federal official may be impeached by the

a.

Supreme Court.

b.

Senate.

c.

House of Representatives.

d.

Attorney General.

e.

Special Prosecutor.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 36

  1. A federal official who has been impeached is tried by the

a.

Supreme Court.

b.

Senate.

c.

House of Representatives.

d.

Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.

e.

Special Prosecutor.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 36

  1. The final draft of the Constitution was approved by the delegates on

a.

July 4, 1776.

b.

March 1, 1781.

c.

September 17, 1787.

d.

February 6, 1788.

e.

May 29, 1790.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 37

  1. The battle over ratification of the Constitution was fought chiefly by two opposing groups, the

a.

Constitutionalists and the Confederates.

b.

nationalists and the centrists.

c.

Federalists and the Anti-Federalists.

d.

Hamiltonians and the Madisonians.

e.

Republicans and the Democrats.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 37

  1. In the debate over ratification of the Constitution, the Federalists were at a(n)

a.

disadvantage because they had very little time, money, or prestige.

b.

advantage because they had attended the Constitutional Convention and thus were familiar with the arguments both in favor of and against various constitutional provisions.

c.

advantage because such patriots as Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry spoke forcefully in favor of the Constitution.

d.

disadvantage because they were unable to be elected as delegates to the states’ ratifying conventions.

e.

advantage because they stood for the status quo.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 37-38

  1. John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison wrote a series of essays in defense of the Constitution, collectively known as

a.

the Federalist Papers.

b.

The Washington Post.

c.

Publius.

d.

the Montezuma Papers.

e.

Poor Richard’s Almanac.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 38

  1. In Federalist Paper No. 10, Madison argued that the nation’s size was actually an advantage in controlling

a.

poverty.

b.

crime.

c.

factions.

d.

racism.

e.

immigration.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 39

  1. In the debate over ratification, the Anti-Federalists argued vigorously that the Constitution needed

a.

to establish an even stronger national government.

b.

to limit personal freedom.

c.

a bill of rights.

d.

to guarantee voting rights for women.

e.

to prohibit slavery.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 39

  1. The ninth state to ratify the Constitution, thus formally putting it into effect, was

a.

Rhode Island.

b.

New York.

c.

Virginia.

d.

New Hampshire.

e.

Pennsylvania.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 39

  1. Implicitly, the principle of limited government rests on the concept of

a.

popular sovereignty.

b.

federalism.

c.

separation of powers.

d.

checks and balances.

e.

judicial review.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 40

  1. In drafting the Constitution, ____ was the solution to the debate over whether the national government or the states should have ultimate sovereignty.

a.

checks and balances

b.

federalism

c.

limited government

d.

separation of powers

e.

the rule of law

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: 40

  1. In the Madisonian model of government, the powers of the national government were

a.

balanced by the powers of the states.

b.

subordinate to the powers of the large states.

c.

separated into different branches: legislative, executive, and judicial.

d.

absolute.

e.

superior to popular sovereignty and the rule of law.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 41

  1. A major principle of American government, ____, was devised to ensure that no one group or branch of government can exercise exclusive control.

a.

checks and balances

b.

popular sovereignty

c.

limited government

d.

federalism

e.

the rule of law

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 42

  1. The president checks Congress by

a.

exercising the power of judicial review.

b.

controlling taxes and spending.

c.

appointing federal judges.

d.

holding a veto power.

e.

exercising the power of impeachment.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 42

  1. Staggered terms of office for members of the House of Representatives, members of the Senate, and the president reflect the principle of

a.

federalism.

b.

popular sovereignty.

c.

limited government.

d.

separation of powers.

e.

checks and balances.

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: 42

  1. By ____, all of the states had ratified the ____ amendments that now constitute our Bill of Rights.

a.

1881; ten

b.

1876; twelve

c.

1795; twelve

d.

1791; ten

e.

1789; sixteen

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 43

  1. Since the Constitution was written, ____ amendments have been introduced in Congress.

a.

more than eleven thousand

b.

nearly three thousand

c.

about one hundred

d.

only thirty-three

e.

only twenty-seven

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 43

  1. There are ____ possible ways for an amendment to be added to the Constitution.

a.

two

b.

three

c.

four

d.

six

e.

eight

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: 43

  1. All of the existing amendments to the Constitution have been proposed

a.

by a two-thirds vote in the Senate and in the House of Representatives.

b.

by a vote in two-thirds of the state legislatures.

c.

in special state conventions.

d.

by a three-fourths vote in the Senate and in the House of Representatives.

e.

at national constitutional conventions.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: 44

  1. All but one of the existing amendments to the Constitution have been ratified by

a.

three-fourths of the states in special ratifying conventions.

b.

a three-fourths vote in the Senate and in the House of Representatives.

c.

votes in two-thirds of the state legislatures.

d.

votes in three-fourths of the state legislatures.

e.

the Supreme Court.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 45

  1. The ____Amendment was ratified by a vote in special conventions in three-fourths of the states.

a.

Fourth

b.

Tenth

c.

Fourteenth

d.

Twenty-first

e.

Twenty-seventh

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: 45

ESSAY

  1. Describe how the colonists derived their understanding of social compacts, the rights of the people, limited government, and representative government from their own experiences.

ANS:

Students’ answers may vary.

PTS: 1

  1. Discuss the significant events leading up to American independence. Why did the colonists revolt against Britain?

ANS:

Students’ answers may vary.

PTS: 1

  1. What actions did the Continental Congresses take? How did these actions contribute to the decision to declare independence?

ANS:

Students’ answers may vary.

PTS: 1

  1. Describe the limits on the central government under the Articles of Confederation and explain why the Articles eventually proved ineffective.

ANS:

Students’ answers may vary.

PTS: 1

  1. How did the Constitution address the central government’s lack of certain powers under the Articles of Confederation?

ANS:

Students’ answers may vary.

PTS: 1

  1. Describe the major compromises that were reached at the Constitutional Convention. Why were these compromises necessary? What were the long-term effects of the compromises that were reached?

ANS:

Students’ answers may vary.

PTS: 1

  1. Describe the debate that took place over ratification of the Constitution. Why did the Federalists prevail?

ANS:

Students’ answers may vary.

PTS: 1

  1. How do the principles of government expressed in the Constitution reflect both the founders’ fear of the powerful British monarchy as well as their desire to address the weaknesses of the central government under the Articles of Confederation?

ANS:

Students’ answers may vary.

PTS: 1

  1. Discuss how the system of checks and balances in the constitutional framework works to ensure that no one branch of government can exercise exclusive control.

ANS:

Students’ answers may vary.

PTS: 1

  1. What are some of the differences between a parliamentary system, which is based on the fusion of powers, and the American system, which reflects the separation of powers?

ANS:

Students’ answers may vary.

PTS: 1

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