SITHKOP004 Develop menus for special dietary requirements



  1. List the ingredient substitution/s and/or recipe substitution you could make for the following dishes based on each dietary requirement in the chart below:






Gluten free flour

Almond Meal

Gluten free flour

Almond meal

Gluten free puff pastry

Rice flour

Baby green rice

Gf butter


Sweet nut


Olive oil

Brown sugar

Filo pastry



  1. a) List two (2) common food additives or preservatives found in packaged foods and list why it’s important the food label lists these on the product:

1) Monosodium glutamate, or MSG, is a common food additive used to intensify and enhance the flavour of savoury dishes.

2) Artificial food colouring is used to brighten and improve the appearance of everything from candies to condiments.

Food label carry useful information to help to carry good choices of food, If the food contains additive that you may want to control it.

  1. b) List two (2) types of oils suitable for someone with high cholesterol:

1.Olive oil

2. Sunflower oil and other vegetable oils.

  1. c) Identify three (3) foods that can commonly cause an allergic reaction:

1) Eggs

2) Peanuts

3) wheat

  1. Describe the following diets in the chart below, what foods they can eat and why:




1. Type 2 diabetes involves problems getting enough glucose into the cells. When the sugar can't get where it is supposed to be, it leads to elevated blood sugar levels in the bloodstream, which can lead to complications such as kidney, nerve, and eye damage, and cardiovascular disease. Fatty fish is one of the healthiest foods on the planet, Leafy Greens, Leafy green vegetables are extremely nutritious and low in calories, Cinnamon.


Coeliac disease, also known as gluten intolerance, is a genetic disorder that affects at least 1 in 100 Australians. If a person has coeliac disease this means a person, they have a permanent intestinal intolerance to the gluten protein found in wheat, barley, rye and oats. This disease is treated by a lifelong gluten free diet.

Some of the food safe to eat are:

Arrowroot, Maize, polenta, maize corn, cornmeal, buckwheat flour, wild rice, pea, gram, soya flours


· Avocados

· Nuts — Especially Almonds and Walnuts

· Fatty Fish

· Whole Grains — Especially Oats and Barley

· Fruits and Berries

· Dark Chocolate and Cocoa

· Garlic


Many healthy foods are naturally gluten-free, including fruits, vegetables, legumes, certain whole grains, dairy products, and oils, as well as fresh meat, fish, and poultry. Wheat, rye, and barley are the major foods that need to be avoided while following a gluten-free diet.


· Vegetables, especially leafy green vegetables.

· Meat

· Nuts

· Seeds

· Cakes, biscuits, desserts and other foods cooked with Perfect Sweet xylitol instead of sugar.


· Legumes

· Nuts, Nut Butters and Seeds

· Hemp, Flax and Chia Seeds

· Tofu and Other Minimally Processed Meat Substitutes

· Calcium-Fortified Plant Milks and Yogurts

· Seaweed

· Nutritional Yeast

· Sprouted and Fermented Plant foods

  1. What is the difference between a Vegan diet and a Vegetarian diet, why is it important for Vegans and vegetarians to eat food high in Protein and vitamin B12?

According to the Vegetarian Society, a vegetarian is someone who does not eat any meat, poultry, game, fish, shellfish or by-products of animal slaughter. Vegetarian diets contain various levels of fruits, vegetables, grains, pulses, nuts and seeds.

A vegan diet can be viewed as the strictest form of vegetarianism.

Veganism is currently defined by the Vegan Society as a way of living that attempts to exclude all forms of animal exploitation and cruelty as much as possible.

This includes exploitation for food and any other purpose.

Therefore, a vegan diet not only excludes animal flesh, but also dairy, eggs and animal-derived ingredients. These include gelatine, honey, carmine, pepsin, shellac, albumin, whey, casein and some forms of vitamin D3.

  1. What is meant by the term drug food interaction? And why is it important to follow instructions from a customer if they can’t eat a certain food due to medication they take?

A drug food interaction happens when particular food we eat affects the ingredients in the medicine.

It is very important to follow instructions from a costumer if they can’t eat certain food due to medication they take, the food can make not to absorb the medicine and certain food can decrease or delay the absorption. Some can also cause serious reactions and allergies also to the body.

  1. a) List two (2) food intolerances:

· Dairy Lactose is a sugar found in milk and dairy products.

· Gluten is the general name given to proteins found in wheat, barley, rye and triticale.

  1. b) Why is important that you don’t serve someone nuts if they have mentioned they are allergic to them?

It is important not to serve someone nuts if they are allergic to them because they can have anaptotic shock, show allergic reactions and even die.

  1. a) What is anaphylaxis, and what should you do if a customer is suffering from this?

 Anaphylaxis is a serious, life-threatening allergic reaction. The most common anaphylactic reactions are to foods, insect stings, medications and latex. If you are allergic to a substance, your immune system overreacts to this allergen by releasing chemicals that cause allergy symptoms.

  1. b) What other symptoms can determine an allergic reaction from food? Provide three (3) examples.

· Itchy skin

· Swelling

· Vomiting

· Diarrhoea

  1. Describe one (1) type of food intolerance and describe the symptoms:

One type of food intolerance is of garlic and some symptoms of garlic intolerance are like having a skin inflammation, itchy noise sneezing, shortness of breath or wheezing.

  1. Describe the following terms relation to cultural diets:




The word ‘halal’ literally means permissible- and in translation it is usually used as lawful.

The Halal food Authority rules for halal are based on Islamic Shari’ah. The antonym to halal is haram, which means unlawful or forbidden.


— A lactovegetarian diet is followed by many Hindus – no meat, poultry or fish, no eggs, but milk products are allowed and encouraged. Beef is prohibited, as the cow is considered sacred.

— Brahmins may have restrictions on who prepares their food and how it is stored


— Kosher food is based on the laws of the Jewish religion. Eaten mainly by Orthodox Jews, kosher foods concern certain outlawed meats, how animals are slaughtered and forbids the mixing of meat and milk at a meal. Kosher law also extends to the type of utensils used at a meal.


The term ‘vegetarian’ applies to people who choose not to eat any part of an animal – including meat, poultry, fish or shellfish.

  1. What are the advantages of having more options available for a range of cultural diets on a menu?

· Cultural diets on a menu gets more costumers and sales.

· Cultural diets on a menu can promote healthy eating.

  1. a) List the types of foods that the following nutrients are commonly found in below




Fruits and vegetables have vitamin c. Vitamin c is called ascorbic acid. We can find mainly in oranges.


Whole grains, berries, nuts peas


Rice, pasta, pizza, potatoes


Fish, egg chicken, tofu, soybean, paneer


Salmon, tuna, anchovies

  1. b) Describe why you must have a range of healthier food and beverage selections on the modern menu:

· Peoples are more conscious about their health

· Trends and moments about eating healthy, super foods, fresh eating.

· Influences and diets that change people’s eating habits.

  1. c) Why is it important to eat a balanced diet including lots of fruit and vegetables? What can be the consequences of eating a poor diet?

Having a balanced diet including fruit and vegetables are important to be healthy and prevent diseases. Poor diet results in weakness, gets diseases etc

  1. a) What must you do under the law regarding food labelling when foods include preservatives or additives & what are consequences for not following food labelling laws?

All packaged foods sold in Australia must comply with the labelling requirements of the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code, which applies in Victoria through the Food Act 1984.

Food labels must carry essential information, so that consumers are informed of the nature and properties of foods before they buy.

Food businesses must ensure that they do not mislead or deceive consumers with any claims made on food labels.

Food importers must also comply with Australian labelling laws.

All packaged foods sold in Australia must comply with the labelling requirements stated within the Food Standards Code. These requirements have been adopted into food law by all states and territories in Australia, ensuring that food labelling regulations are consistent across Australia. The Code can be accessed via the Food Standards Australia New Zealand website.

Food labels are required by law to carry essential information so that consumers are informed of the nature and properties of foods prior to purchase –- this includes statements about the presence of allergenic ingredients that could lead to life-threatening allergic reactions in susceptible persons if the labelling information is not accurate. Some information may also voluntarily be offered on food labels by food businesses, giving consumers greater information to make informed purchasing choices.

Food businesses must also ensure that they are not potentially misleading or deceiving consumers with any claims that are made on food labels (whether intentional or not).

As food labelling requirements may differ around the world, businesses that are importing food for sale in Australia need to ensure that these foods comply with Australian labelling regulations before selling the food.

It is an offence under the Victorian Food Act 1984 to sell food that is not compliant with the Code. It is the responsibility of the supplier of the food (this includes manufacturers, distributors, importers and retailers) to ensure that food labels are compliant with all relevant regulations before selling the food. If food businesses are unsure whether their food complies with the relevant regulations, they should engage the services of a lawyer or food regulatory consultant.

  1. b) What can happen to vitamins contained within fruit and vegetables if they are boiled or stored in liquid?

Drying out foods such as fruits can reduce the amount of vitamin C they retain, but it can also concentrate other nutrients, particularly fibre in plant foods. If a dehydrated food is reconstituted and cooked with water, further nutrients are leached out of the food and lost in the cooking water

  1. Where can you find dietary information for Australians including children, adolescents and older Australians? Provide an Example.

We can find all the information on dietary for Australians including children, adolescents and older Australians in the link given below:

  1. How might a diet for an older Australian commonly differ from a healthy 25 year old? How would this affect your menu planning if the majority of your customers were of an older age?

As old peoples have weak digestive system and they are weak so they need foods that are light and easier to chew and easier to digest whereas a 25-year-old healthy person can have any other things.

It will effect on my menu planning as I would focus on foods that are easier to eat.

  1. A pork rib loin costs $ 8.00 per kg bone in. It takes 20 minutes to trim it and the trimming loss is 60% (60% fat and bones with 40% meat left). You serve 200g per serve to the customer. You can purchase a kg of pork steaks (no bone) for $12.00 per kg. How would you purchase your meat? Explain and justify your response

I would purchase the pork steak (no bone) as in there will be no labour costs, no loss of time, no wastage of food etc.

  1. Add up the total food cost of the ingredients required for ‘Mussels with white wine and tomato’:



Costs of each ingredient is as follows

Tomato, concasse




Black mussels









Bacon rasher




Button onion




Garlic clove




Dry white wine




Parsley, chopped



French bread stick




Dishes Total cost


Now calculate the total cost of 23 serves of ‘Mussels sailor style’.

Total cost for 23 serves of Mussels


Finally calculate the correct sales price per head assuming that the food cost will be 30% of the sales price.

Sales price per head