Rocks, Lesson 2 Review

  1. A rock is defined as: igneous, sedimentary or metamorphicA solid mass of one or more minerals.
  1. Igneous rocks form when _ molten material (magma)__ cools and solidifies. EX: Granite (Beneath the earth’s surface) or basalt (at the earth’s surface).
  2. The process of igneous rock formation is crystallization
  3. How do metamorphic rocks form? Strong compressional forces and/or high temperatures. Metamorphic rocks result from recrystallization due to the pressure and heat generated when rocks are buried deep within the crust, or are formed locally in a zone around an igneous intrusion due to the heating effect. (This process is called

Metamorphism.)

  1. Can igneous rocks and sedimentary rocks be changed and form metamorphic rocks? yes
  1. What are sediments? How are sediments formed? Smaller particles that are the result of all rock types being broken down by wind or water and deposited. Sediments are smaller particles that are the result of all rock types being broken down by weathering. igneous rocks are eroded to smaller pieces and particles, which are carried by wind or water and deposited. These deposits are called sediments.

How are sedimentary rocks formed? As more sediments are laid down, the sediments are pressurized, and undergo rock formation.

  1. The process of changing sediment to rock is called _lithification____.
  2. Which rock type are fossils found in?Sedimentary rocks. The lithification process of sedimentary rock is the only one of the three categories that is conducive to preserving fossil specimen.

Study in depth the rock cycle games for complete understanding.

  1. Weathering, what is it? What is the difference between mechanical and chemical weathering? The breakdown of rock over time due to physical and chemical means.

Mechanical: Reduction of size in rocks without changing their chemical make up. Ex. Erosion and ocean wave action.

Chemical: Alteration of certain minerals in the rock by interaction with other elements. Ex. Oxidation and hydrolysis.

  1. The two types of chemical weathering are: Oxidation and hydrolysis.

Ex of mechanical weathering: ocean wave action, & erosion.

Example of chemical weathering: Oxidation – (Oxygen and an element form an oxide, this changing the chemical composition of the element.) and Hydrolysis – (Hydrogen from water reacts with elements to form an acid, which helps to breakdown the rock.11. How is phosphorus released from rock, where it originates?)

  1. What processes allow the release of phosphorus? Weathering and erosion. The death and decay of plants and animals allow the phosphorus to return to the soil. Also fertilizer runoff,

12.How is phosphorus released from rock, where it originates? Weathering and erosion.

  1. What form of phosphorus is required by plants and animals? Phosphate
  2. What man made items add phosphorus to a system? fertilizer
  1. In what two ways does Carbon Dioxide enter the oceans? Diffusion and photosynthesis
  2. What form of carbon is needed by corals to build their skeletons? Calcium Carbonate.
  1. The ocean is considered a “sink” for carbon, what does this mean? where excess carbon from the atmosphere can be stored.
  1. The two non-living places in the oceans where carbon is stored are: Water column and sediments.
  2. The Florida peninsula sits on a rock base, with a __limestone____ layer above it. This layer is predominant south of Lake Okeechobee.
  3. What organisms created the layer above? Marine, corals
  1. What rocks are mined in Florida? What is the use of each of them? Limestone: Used in the making of cement and road construction.

Phosphate: Used in the manufacture of fertilizers.

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