Public Health Approach Sample Assignment
The public health approach engage measuring and defining the trouble, deciding the reason or risk factors for the trouble, deciding how to stop or reorganize the difficulty, and executing efficient strategies on a superior scale and appraising the impact . On the other hand it can be said that the public health approach not only focus on the high-risk individual but also focus on the population approach . The approach also prevents society by dealing 'upstream' danger factors. According to WHO The philosophy of public health offer a valuable construction for both ongoing to examine and realize the reasons and consequences of cruelty and for prohibiting cruelty from happening through policy interventions, prime prevention program and advocacy. In addition to the above statement, this public health approach to cruelty prevention look for in order to progress the wellbeing and security of each and every one by addressing fundamental threat factors that enhance the probability that a human being will develop into a sufferer or a executor of brutality . The study will discuss elaborately about the step of the public health approach. In addition, the researcher will also talk about several advantages of using the public health approach in order to deal health problem in the entire society. Moreover, in this research paper two examples will be discussed for using the public health approach to prepare preventive strategies towards health problem.
Literature review is an essential part of the research paper, as this section will provide a clear idea and proper knowledge about the research subject to the researcher. On the other hand, the researcher will get sufficient information about his/ her subject from previous study. In order to structure the literature gap the researcher need to do Literature review properly . In other word, literature review will provide a clear idea about in which sectors research has already been done and in which sectors there were no sufficient research. Therefore, the researcher will get suggestion in which sectors he or she has to put effort in order to carry forward the study.
Analyze stage in the public health approach
The public health approach is a procedure, which is completed or implemented by four different stages that are embedded in the scientific technique. It can be relevant in order to prohibited violence and other wellbeing troubles that have an effect on populace. The steps are discussed elaborately in the underneath section:
Step 1: Characterize and observe the problem
In the first step of public health approach, the violence or cruelty or any other problem that happened has to be characterized. In order to, prevent the violence at first it should understand who is the victim, who is the offender. Then it should be identified that what is the problem or offense, when did the crime or offence happened, in which place the problem arose and the last thing is how did the crime or offence of problem happen . Define the problem can be done by answering who, when, what, how and where. Grasping the degree of the trouble engages examining facts such as the degree and quantity of violence-associated attitude, behavior, damages, and deaths. Information can express how repeatedly cruelty takes place, where it is happen, tendency, and who are the sufferers and the person responsible for. Those information can be acquired from medical inspector files, police complain, hospital register, fundamental records, population-based study, registries, and other sources .
Step 2: Recognize the risk and defensive factors
After defining and monitoring the problem or offence or crime in the second step, the risk should be recognized. Moreover, not only the risk but also the defensive factors should be recognizes in order to build up any strategy against the violence. It is essential to identify what determinant defends public or place them at danger for executing or experiencing violent behavior . Risk factors and defensive factors are very important as it helps to recognize where prevention attempt require to be focused. In addition to the above discussion, it can be said that risk factors are not the reason for violence or crime or cruelty. Risk and defensive factors can be identified from measurements, population assessments, focus groups and stakeholder interviews . The occurrence of a risk factor is not always the reason that an individual will for all time face cruelty or violence. Sufferers are not at all accountable for the injury inflicted upon them. Risk factors can be defined as the factors that have trait that enhances the possibility of a human being becoming a sufferer or performer of aggression. On the other hand, defensive factors can be considered as the factors that have trait that reduces the possibility of a human being becoming a sufferer or performer of cruelty because it gives a safeguard in opposition to risk .
Step 3: Build up and test defensive strategies
After identify all the reason and factors from medical inspector files, police complain, hospital register, fundamental records, population-based study, registries, and other sources, in this step suitable and most effective preventive strategies should be developed in order to minimize the risk and violence. Using these information and findings is identified as proof-based approach to curriculum development . Once curriculums are put into practice, they are assessed thoroughly to determine their efficiency. The curriculum of defensive strategy is developed based on the situation of the victim, offender and the kind of violence. The main aim of the curriculum is to provide maximum benefit and most effective way in order to protect the victim from further harm. However, despite the consequences of whether the curriculum achievement has been empirically authenticated, if it is supposedly booming and providing to optimistic momentum, at that moment the next aim is to work on the way to prevention of the trouble. For example, by prohibiting American tobacco companies from initiating tobacco goods into rising nations, public health advocates were fruitfully able to avert the beginning of another new risk issues for illness into those nations . In order to prevent this trouble, primordial, primary, secondary and tertiary goal has to be prepared. Primary prevention is to turn away a health hazard by tackling its core causes earlier than they effect in a sickness or damage. In addition it can be stated that primary prevention gives effort are ambitious strategies expected at decreasing contacts to danger, changing risky attitude, and enhancing fight to infection or wound should disclosure take place. The main aim of secondary prevention is to diminish the consequence of a illness or an wound that has previously happened. On the other hand, the procedure may engage approaches for identifying and treating a sickness or wound as in a little while to stop the progress or sluggish its development, cheering individual strategies to stop reappearance and reinjure and executing curriculums to come back populace to their original physical condition and capability to function. Tertiary prevention strategies have to develop in order to reduce the outcome of an continuing sickness or wound that has long-lasting special effects, as well as averting its reappearance . In successive years, primeval prevention has arrived to be connected with transformation in the nation or transformation in overall level political and social and policies to stop sickness.
Step 4: Reassure widespread implementation
After efficient and successful strategies have been recognized, the last step is to reassure their extensive implementation by broadcasting and applying them largely. Population and society are inspired to put into practice evidence-based curriculum and to assess the curriculum’s success. Distribution techniques to encourage extensive implementation include networking, training, evaluation and technical assistance.
Figure 1: steps of public health approach
(Source: created by author)
Advantages of using the public health approach to deal health issues
The job of public health specialized is vital for the reason that community health proposal has an effect on populace each day in each part of the humankind. It concentrates on wide-ranging problems that can influence the wellbeing and welfare of persons, communities, societies, families and populations . The philosophy of public health offer a valuable construction for both ongoing to examine and realize the reasons and consequences of cruelty and for prohibiting cruelty from happening through policy interventions, prime prevention program and advocacy.
Public health illustrates on a science base, which is multi-punitive. It has confident on knowledge from a wide range of regulation together with epidemiology, medicine, psychology, sociology, criminology, economics and education. This wide-ranging knowledge base has permitted the ground of public health to act in response productively to a variety of health circumstances across the world . On the other hand, the ground also give importance to input from varied divisions together with social services, education, health, policies, justice and the private division. Combined act on the part of these associates can assist in accosting problems like cruelty and violence. In addition to this statement, this can be said that the focal point of public health is on the wellbeing, health and security of whole populace. An exceptional feature of the ground is that it struggles to offer the utmost benefit for the biggest number of populace . On the other hand, the main contributor of the public health service is government public health agencies. This agencies in populations all over the United States are accountable for defending, evaluating, and promising human being, population, and ecological health. The agencies have some specific functions such as:
- Check health condition to recognize the health problems of the society.
- Notify, teach, and authorize populace about health matter.
- Build up effective policies and strategy that hold up human being and health efforts of the society.
- Analyze and explore health troubles and health vulnerability in the population.
- Promise an experienced community wellbeing and individual healthcare workers.
- Assess convenience, usefulness, and excellence of individual and populace-based health facilities.
- Gather together the partnerships of the society to recognize and resolve health issues.
Two Examples (case study) for utilizing the public health approach to plan preventive strategies toward health problems
The National Policy for Tobacco Control in Brazil
Brazil has been renowned for its global tobacco control initiatives for last several years. It has been observed that since 1989 Brazil has been sincere to limit the tobacco consumption across the country. In this context, it has been noted that the general smoking prevalence has been reduced to 18% 2003 from 35% in 1989, which further dropped to 16% 3 years later.
Table 1: Smoking prevalence by gender and Age group in 1989 and 2003
(Source: National Survey on Health and Nutrition 1989; world health survey 2003)
According to the above table, it can be observed that both the male and female populace has turned from the smoking habit since 1989 . The reduction in smoking prevalence has reduced in every age group. Hence, it can be ascertained that Brazil’ national policy for tobacco control has proved to be most fruitful as far as the result is concerned.
The study of the tobacco control program in Brazil is mostly comprised of several widespread initiatives. It includes educating general populace in health services, workplaces and schools; offering economic and legislative incentives as well as conducting effective surveillance . In order to prevent the tobacco consumption, the program identified several crucial steps, which are
- Smoking prevention, emphasis on teen and children
- Promoting actions in terms of smoking cessation encouragement
- Protecting general non-smoking populace from hazards of environmental tobacco smoke
- Initiating product regulation measures in order to promote the reduction of tobacco harm
In order to attain the above-mentioned steps, the government has undertaken several important approaches. It has been observed that Brazilian government has been monitoring health impact of tobacco, the environment, economy, and consumption trends. The program also has been spreading awareness regarding health consequences of tobacco. It is attempting to reduce the smoking acceptance as well as the stimuli in society . It also actively tries to protect the non-smokers from environmental tobacco smoke. The approaches also include supporting the cessation therapies as well as reducing the tobacco products access points. The program also counteracts the tobacco advertisement and propaganda. The tobacco marketing is effectively controlled and monitored by the Brazilian government.
The entire program is primarily focused on three major strategies, which has proven to bear most effective result in the past years. These strategies are mentioned below:
- The program mobilizes and organizes multi-sector actions through national commissions
- The program manages the cooperation between the state and municipal by decentralizing and intervening the tobacco control network.
- The Brazilian government also put greater effort to partner with the non-governmental bodies to maximize the actions.
The institutional development of tobacco control program in Brazil first started in 1985 through an advisory group. However, the major focus then was still on communicable pulmonary disease. The first active initiative was undertaken in 1999, with the establishment of National Commission, to oblige with the demands of WHO Framework Convention concerning tobacco control . The commission was operated by National Cancer Institute (INCA). Later on in that year, the government also established National Public Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) for implementing regulatory measures. In 2003, the previous commission was replaced by the National Commission for Implementation of the Framework Convention on tobacco control (CONICQ).
The National Agreement for Healthy Food: Strategies to Combat Obesity in Mexico
In the contemporary 21st century, the obesity and overweight issue has been proved to be major health challenge for all of the world. It has been observed that the obesity is the prime reason for various non-communicable chronic diseases in low- and middle income as well as developed countries. Similar to other countries, Mexico has been noted to have second most obese populace in all over the globe . As per National Survey on Health and Nutrition, Mexico has been most threatened by the obese associated diseases such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, heart and coronary disease, diabetes even some cancer as well. Considering the above facets, Mexico has undertaken sincere policies and actions for counteracting the progress of obese. Mexico started to collect information, review experience as well as engage in discussion with the experts, few years back. Later than a comprehensive planning, the government implemented a strategy, ‘National Agreement for Nutritional Health’ for controlling obesity and overweight . In order to establish common goal for all the stakeholders, the agreement emphasized on three major obesity prevention approaches. These approaches are mentioned below:
- Emphasis on decreasing overweight and obesity prevalence in the 2 – 5 years old population
- Focus on reducing overweight and obesity in 5 – 19 years old population.
- Slowing the hike of prevalence in overweight and obesity for the adults .
It has been observed that in other countries, the success of these policies are highly related with the environment modification, habit change, nutritional conduct as well as physical activity. Considering these issues the Mexican government has undertaken several effective strategies. The government is continuously attempting to promote physical activity in recreational, community as well as academic settings . The government has increased the consumption, accessibility and availability of water. The government has controlled the use of sugars and fats in drinks. In order to make the agreement successful the government has focused on four transverse activities, which are mentioned below:
- Information, Communication and Education: The government has attempted to promote information access based on health education and scientific evidence. It is beneficial for the population in the context of responsible decision making as well as healthy lifestyle promotion.
- Advocacy, regulation and co-regulation: the government also developed health policies for all the sectors emphasizing upon physical activity habits as well as nutrition. This attempt also included marketing regulations of beverages and foods as well as public parks and spaces restoration .
- Monitoring and evaluation: The government has also been quite sincere to follow up and evaluate the results of the actions taken so that they can gauge the level of fulfilment.
- Research: The government has also been focused on extensive targeted research on the health policies, so that they can modify the health literacy programs, interventions, taxations as well as general environment .
From the above conversation it is found that public health approach, not only focus on the high-risk individual but also focus on the population approach. This public health approach to cruelty prevention look for in order to progress the wellbeing and security of each and every one by addressing fundamental threat factors that enhance the probability that a human being will develop into a sufferer or a executor of brutality. The public health approach is a procedure, which is completed or implemented by four different stages that are characterize and observe the problem, recognize the risk and defensive factors, build up and test defensive strategies, reassure widespread implementation. The philosophy of public health offer a valuable construction for both ongoing to examine and realize the reasons and consequences of cruelty and for prohibiting cruelty from happening through policy interventions, prime prevention program and advocacy. In this study, two case studies were in order to explain the usefulness of public health approach to prepare preventive strategies on the way to health trouble. One case study was on The National Policy for Tobacco Control in Brazil and another one was on The National Agreement for Healthy Food: Strategies to Combat Obesity in Mexico. The study of the tobacco control program in Brazil is mostly comprised of several widespread initiatives. It includes educating general populace in health services, workplaces and schools; offering economic and legislative incentives as well as conducting effective surveillance. On the other hand, Mexico started to collect information, review experience as well as engage in discussion with the experts, few years back. After a comprehensive planning, the government implemented a strategy, ‘National Agreement for Nutritional Health’ for controlling obesity and overweight.
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