List Programming Languages

Introduction to Interactive mode languages

List based programming languages are second oldest high-level programming languages in widespread use today. The interchangeability of code and data also gives Lisp its instantly recognizable syntax. All program code is written as s-expressions, or parenthesized lists.

List Programming languages was closely connected with the artificial intelligence research community, especially on PDP-10 systems. List based programming languages was used as the implementation of the programming language Micro Planner which was used in the famous AI system SHRDLU.

Advantages of List Programming

  • Clear syntax, carefully designed semantics
  • Several data types: numbers, strings, arrays, lists, characters, symbols, structures, streams etc
  • Runtime typing: the programmer need not bother about type declarations, but he gets notified on type violations
  • automatic memory management (garbage collection)
  • packaging of programs into modules
  • an object system, generic functions with powerful method combination
  • macros: every programmer can make his own language extensions

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interactive programming
  • They are data types, embodying subtype–super type relationships between objects.
  • They are the vehicle for abstraction of common attributes of objects.
  • They organize sharing of attributes: Subclasses inherit the attributes of super classes.
  • They are the principal basis for specializing behaviour of objects.