List Programming Languages
Introduction to Interactive mode languages
List based programming languages are second oldest high-level programming languages in widespread use today. The interchangeability of code and data also gives Lisp its instantly recognizable syntax. All program code is written as s-expressions, or parenthesized lists.
List Programming languages was closely connected with the artificial intelligence research community, especially on PDP-10 systems. List based programming languages was used as the implementation of the programming language Micro Planner which was used in the famous AI system SHRDLU.
Advantages of List Programming
- Clear syntax, carefully designed semantics
- Several data types: numbers, strings, arrays, lists, characters, symbols, structures, streams etc
- Runtime typing: the programmer need not bother about type declarations, but he gets notified on type violations
- automatic memory management (garbage collection)
- packaging of programs into modules
- an object system, generic functions with powerful method combination
- macros: every programmer can make his own language extensions
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The Joy programming language in computer science is a purely functional programming language that was produced by Manfred von Thun of La Trobe in Melbourne Australia. Joy is based on the composition of functions. All such functions take a stack as argument and produce a stack as value. It does not use lambda-abstraction of expressions but instead it uses quotation of expressions. A large number of combinatory are used to perform DE quotation, they have the effect of higher order functions. Several of them can be used to eliminate recursive definitions. Programs in Joy are compact and often look just like postfix notation.
Lisp is a family of computer programming languages used for the Artificial intelligence and mathematical applications. Lisp the second oldest high-level programming language that introduce the many new features to the programming e.g tree data structures, management, dynamic, and the self-hosting compiler. Linked Lists are the main data type of the lisp programming language on the name of the “list processing” the name LISP is derived. Lisp programming language provide the feature of interchangeability of the code and data to provide the instant recognizable syntax. It quickly became the favored programming language for artificial intelligence (AI) research. Lisp has spawned many variations on the core theme of an S-expression language. Moreover, each given dialect may have several implementations—for instance, there are more than a dozen implementations of Common Lisp.
Arc is a List based Language which is dialect of Lisp Programming Language. It was developed in 2009 by Paul Graham and Morris. It supports all operating system and run on the Racket compiler. It is designed for exploratory programming i.e what to write by writing it. Arc is still unfinished and missing lots of property in it. It is under development process. Arc Programs are consists of expressions. The simplest expression are like number and strings etc
The Dylan programming langauge is a multi-paradigm language that includes support for functional and object-oriented programming, and is dynamic and reflective while providing a programming model designed to support efficient machine code generation, including fine-grained control over dynamic and static behaviours. Dylan is an object-oriented language. Programs create and use objects, and they use classes to categorize and abstract attributes of objects. Classes play a number of key roles:
- They are data types, embodying subtype–super type relationships between objects.
- They are the vehicle for abstraction of common attributes of objects.
- They organize sharing of attributes: Subclasses inherit the attributes of super classes.
- They are the principal basis for specializing behaviour of objects.
Scheme is a general-purpose computer programming language. It is a high-level language, supporting operations on structured data such as strings, lists, and vectors, as well as operations on more traditional data such as numbers and characters. While Scheme is often identified with symbolic applications, its rich set of data types and flexible control structures make it a truly versatile language. Scheme programs are highly portable across versions of the same Scheme implementation on different machines, because machine dependencies are almost completely hidden from the programmer. They are also portable across different implementations because of the efforts of a group of Scheme language designers who have published a series of reports, the "Revised Reports" on Scheme
Logo is an List-based programming language which was designed in 1967 by Daniel G.Bobraw, Wally Feurzeing, Seymour Papert and Cynthia Solomon. Now a days it is only used for “turtle graphics”,in which commands for movement and drawing produced line graphics either on screen or with a small robot called a "turtle"
Lush is an object-oriented programming language designed for researchers, experimenters, and engineers interested in large-scale numerical and graphic applications. Lush programming language is easy to embed and easy to understand. Lush Programming language is used to combine the features of two programming languages e.g used to combine the flexibility of high-level programming language with the efficiency of strongly typed programming languages. Lush programming language is used for the experiments to develop the new features in the programming using lush programming language. The main areas of experiment using the Lush programming language are signal processing, image processing, machine learning, computer vision, bio-informatics, data mining, statistics and artificial intelligence.
TCL stands for Tool Command Language. Tcl is a scripting language and extending programming language. It is used for rapid prototyping, scripted application. It is used on enbeded systems platforms. Tcl can work on Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, as well as other platforms. It is an Open Source Programming language. The combination of TCL and Tcl GUI is called Tcl/Tk.
TRAC is a Text Reckoning And Compiling language used as a macro language. TRAC is completely text-based programming language and well planned programming language. TRAC is a expression oriented language. The syntax of TRAC is similar that of LISP a syntax that have many level of nested parenthesis. The one of the drawback of TRAC programming language is the lack of full extensibility. TRAC was used in the many applications e.g TRAC was used as a modem dialer scripting language in FTP software. TRAC programming language is simple and easy to program. TRAC programming is highly flexible and easily embed in the other applications
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