List Programming Languages
Introduction to Interactive mode languages
List based programming languages are second oldest high-level programming languages in widespread use today. The interchangeability of code and data also gives Lisp its instantly recognizable syntax. All program code is written as s-expressions, or parenthesized lists.
List Programming languages was closely connected with the artificial intelligence research community, especially on PDP-10 systems. List based programming languages was used as the implementation of the programming language Micro Planner which was used in the famous AI system SHRDLU.
Advantages of List Programming
- Clear syntax, carefully designed semantics
- Several data types: numbers, strings, arrays, lists, characters, symbols, structures, streams etc
- Runtime typing: the programmer need not bother about type declarations, but he gets notified on type violations
- automatic memory management (garbage collection)
- packaging of programs into modules
- an object system, generic functions with powerful method combination
- macros: every programmer can make his own language extensions
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- They are data types, embodying subtype–super type relationships between objects.
- They are the vehicle for abstraction of common attributes of objects.
- They organize sharing of attributes: Subclasses inherit the attributes of super classes.
- They are the principal basis for specializing behaviour of objects.