Persuasive writing is a type of writing which is written in order to convince the readers so that they believe the idea proposed in the text. This is a form of non - fiction writing which employs logical arguments. It is important to choose the right words while writing in persuasive format. The writer has to make the readers believe an idea thus use of wrong words might offend sentiments, ideologies or philosophies of other people. Critics, reviews, reaction papers, editorials, proposals, advertisements and brochures are different ways to write and influence in persuasive writing.
Types of Persuasive Writing
We can find three types of persuasive writing - Appeal to reason; Appeal to Emotion; Appeal to the character. These are also called as Logos, Pathos and Ethos respectively.
1. Appeal to Reason - Appeal to reason is also called as Logos which is a Greek word. In this type of Persuasive writing, writers quote solid proofs so that their arguments can be considered strong. Use of Numbers, charts, graphs, percentages make this type of persuasive writing stronger.
For example," A bar of Cadbury has 380 calories and 30 grams of sugar so it is unhealthy." Looks more convincing rather than "Cadbury is unhealthy "
2. Appeal to Emotion
Appeal to emotion also known as Pathos consists of Persuasion done through emotions and feelings. Because of the use of high emotion this type of appealing will be more convincing. The convincing would be easier because the reader will gain faith over the emotions described and will use his imagination actively.
For example, if a writer wants to convince the reader into donations for hungry and impoverished puppies, he will situations which will make the reader analyze the life of such puppies closely. Or he will write a situation in which the reader would be at the place of puppy i.e. without any home, without someone taking care of them. This will create an emotional request towards the heart and mind of the reader to donate.
3. Appeal to Character
Ethos is a type where the writer tries to persuade readers by showing himself as a person of good character to grab the attention of readers by telling them that the writer does not have any wrong virtues. The ethics and knowledge of persuader are highly judged by the reader and then he decides to judge him or not.
For example, reading engineering articles from a business student will not be as credible and well-granted if it was written by an engineering student.
TECHNIQUES OF PERSUASION
There can be different types of techniques employed while persuading. There can be 8 types of techniques used which are listed below.
- Appeal to Authority - When the writer is trying to appeal to significant people or experts, he tries to make the argument more and more convincing. While using this kind of technique it is important to employ reliable research.
Example - Many studies have shown that dark Cadbury chocolate can improve health and lower the risk of heart disease.
- Appeal to Reason - When the writer is using appeal to reason, he must employ facts and numbers so that the argument looks more convincing.
Example: A Cadbury bar has 280 calories and 30 grams of sugar. That’s not very healthy.
- Appeal to Emotion - This when the writer uses the technique of making the reader feel happy, sad, or angry by the argument proposed.
Example: Your donation may strengthen the idea of putting a puppy off the street to a good home.
- Appeal to Trust - In this technique, writers employ the technique of making readers believe and trust in them. Through this technique, the writer is more likely to persuade readers.
Example: Believe me! I’ve been there before. I’m just like you.
- Plain Folks - In this technique, writers think that readers will believe in them if they appear to be an Average person.
Example: A politician says, “I’m going to clean out the shed!”
- Bandwagon -The technique of persuasion is done by making readers believe that people like them agree with our ideas so that they think that if everyone is believing it then it must be true!
Example: Eight out of ten people prefer our software!
- Rhetorical Question - Rhetorical questions are not intended to be answered. They’re a way to state the “obvious" which everyone would like to do. This makes the technique of persuasion easy.
Example: Who wouldn’t like to get free food?
- Repetition - Repetition of ideas or words is done during this technique.
Repeating information and facts make readers believe it gets persuaded by the idea proposed.
Example: Duty does not trump honesty. Duty does not trump common sense. And duty, my friends, does not trump morality.
ELEMENTS POF PERSUASIVE WRITING
There are some elements of Persuasive writing which must be taken while employing the technique. A writer would be considered well written persuasive writing when there is proper reasoning, detailed facts, relevant evidence and thorough comparison.
Clear, concise, and defined thesis
In the first paragraph of a persuasive essay, writers should present the statement which presents the writer's position on the topic or issue. This would be called a thesis provided at the beginning which is clearly and directly stating a position. The thesis presented should also include a recommendation for the issue.
Other than this thesis should also include a piece of evidence in order to support the issue. If the thesis is covering many topics or issues than there must be more evidence employed. This will make the thesis look more effective.
The introduction of Persuasive essays should capture the audience’s attention by presenting debatable topics or issues. The introduction is the place where the writer clarifies his position.
The importance of the topic should be involved clearly in the introduction. Many times, rhetoric questions are asked rm the readers in order to gain their attention towards the subject further. Straightforward or Emotional language is also used in introductions.
A well-developed argument with strong evidence
After the introduction writers should develop an argument with specific reasons and valid evidence to help the audience get persuaded the argument is written should cover valuable comparisons opposing other opinions. The writer should try to prove their issues are better with factual information.
Examples of these can be -
- Facts that can be proven
- Expert opinions or quotations
- Definitions that state the meaning of a word or phrase
- Statistics that offer scientific support
Organized clear structure
The structure employed by the writer in their argument should ensure clear ideas which are strongly related to the topic. The argument should be done in a unified and coherent manner. Meaningful things should be written to make the audience remember and convince.
A strong conclusion should not work with a restatement of issues in brief rather it should persuade and convince the readers. No new information should be introduced here. Instead by relating the earlier facts the writer should further review it by use of the persuading language.
Right word choice
Choice of words is important to write a document and provide its reasoning. This is important in order to not offend emotions or ideas of any reader. Moreover, effective word choices also help in persuading activity. Phrases and sensory details should be used.
WHY IS PERSUASIVE WRITING DIFFICULT?
Persuasive writing is difficult because coming up with an issue or a topic is a hard obstacle. Thus, the difficulties related to Persuasive Writing begin even before writing the assignment. A person can totally get stuck between two or three potential ideas. Even if the person has an idea but still, he may further have problems to select arguments or evidence to support it.
While stating specific views, it may get a little difficult. And there may be many ideas on the Internet supporting your topic but it gets difficult when plagiarism is not allowed. Moreover, sources on the internet are mostly biased and have no proper evidence to state their argument.
Other than one major problem faced by students while writing persuasive essays or papers is that they do not cope well with the idea of honouring other viewpoints. Students are not able to write their arguments while respecting other viewpoints. This makes their convincing power weak.
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