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NURS5366 test 3 questions and answers

Question 1

An outpatient being treated in the infusion center for thalassemia is asked to fill out a form about satisfaction with the center, while he waits for his appointment. The form consists of five questions, each a statement, with six possibilities after it: Strongly Agree, Agree, Slightly Agree, Slightly Disagree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. This is an example of which of the following?

Answers a.

:

A semantic differential scale

b.

A paper interview

c.

A questionnaire

A Likert scale

Response

Feedback: A Likert scale determines the opinion or attitude of a subject and contains a number of declarative statements with a scale after each statement. The Likert scale is the most commonly used of the scaling techniques in nursing and health care studies. Response choices in a Likert scale most commonly address agreement, evaluation, or frequency. Agreement options may include statements such as strongly agree, agree, uncertain, disagree, and strongly disagree. p. 411

Question 2

A researcher evaluates whether a tool addresses the major elements of the construct being studied. This helps to ensure:

Answers: a.

content validity

  1. internal consistency

c.

equivalence

  1. readability level

Question 3

A researcher administers a scale measuring self­confidence and one measuring self­doubt to a group of subjects and performs a correlational analysis of the results. This is a test of validity from:

Answers a.

:

convergence

divergent validity

c.

equivalence

  1. contrasting groups

Response Feedback: page 382

Question 4

What is the purpose of completing a pilot study?

Answers: a.

It justifies the existence of a research gap.

b.

It provides nominal and ordinal data with which the researcher can construct better instruments.

It helps identify problems the researcher might encounter while collecting data.

d.

It gives the researcher preliminary data to present to the institutional review board in order to obtain permission to conduct research.

Response Feedback:

  1. 508

Question 5

The quantitative researcher collects many pieces of quantitative data as words, not numbers. Prior to statistical analysis, all of the data pieces must be coded. What does this mean?

Answers: a.

The data regarding protected data are transformed to code names; a list is made and kept in a secure location.

b.

The data are typed into a computer, and the computer is instructed to transform the words into binary values, using only 0 and 1, by adding up the numbers of each letter in the alphabet.

c.

The essence of each word is noted; later, these essences emerge as themes.

d.

The data are transformed into numerals corresponding to words, such as

0—no college degree, 1—bachelor’s degree, 2—master’s degree, 3—

PhD or EdD.

Response

Feedback: Coding is the process of transforming language data into numerical

symbols that can be entered easily into the computer. For example, variables such as race, gender, ethnicity, and diagnoses can be categorized and given numerical labels. For gender, the male category could be identified by a “1” and the female category by a “2.” The coding categories developed for the research must be both mutually exclusive and mutually exhaustive so, with respect to the latter, inclusion of “3”—decline to state and “4”—none of the above might be useful.

p.502

Question 6

A researcher studying depression in relation to five predictor variables decides to include five more variables in the study because the literature reveals that they may also be involved in depression. Consequently, the researcher will do which of the following?

Answers a.

:

Perform additional reliability and validity tests.

b.

Use a larger sample size.

c.

Change the design of the research from correlational to descriptive. d.

Set beta at a lower level.

Response

Feedback: As the number of variables under study grows, the needed sample size increases. Adding variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, and education to the analysis plan can increase the sample size by a factor of 5 to 10 if the selected variables are uncorrelated with the dependent variable. Setting beta lower, performing additional reliability and validity tests, and changing the design from correlational to descriptive will not solve the problem of the altered power of the study, due to addition of five variables. Only increasing

the sample size will be a practical solution.

  1. 350

Question 7

A researcher performs a series of pilot studies to evaluate whether a

measurement tool produces consistent results. This is an evaluation of:

Answers: a.

Reliability

b.

Readability

c.

Validity

d.

Accuracy

Response Feedback: page 370

Question 8

Which of the following constructs would be appropriate to measure with a visual analogue scale?

Answers a.

:

Anxiety

b.

Dichotomous variables

c.

Visual acuity

  1. blood pressure

Response Feedback:

p.414

Question 9

Which of the following is NOT a physiological measures?

Answers: a.

A subject’s report of episodes of tachycardia per day

b.

Score on the Mini Mental Status Exam

c.

Serum sodium

d.

Use of a tuning fork to measure bone conduction hearing loss

Response

Feedback: Physiological measures include two categories, biophysical and biochemical measures. For example, biophysical measures might include the use of the stethoscope and sphygmomanometer to measure blood pressure and a biochemical measure might include the laboratory value for total cholesterol. Self-report has been used effectively to obtain physiological information and may be particularly useful when the subjects are not in closely monitored settings such as hospitals, clinics, or research facilities. For some variables, self-report may be the only means of obtaining the information. Such may be the case when study participants experience a physiological phenomenon that cannot be observed or measured by others.

  1. 394

Question 10

A researcher develops a new instrument to measure coping skills and conducts a pilot study to compare the new tool with an existing tool that measures this concept. This is an example of evidence of validity from:

Answers: a. Readability

Convergent validity

c.

Contrasting groups

d.

Divergent vality

Response Feedback: page 382

Question 11

Using a table of random numbers, the sample of 400 subjects was selected from the list of the license numbers of all registered nurses in the state of Michigan. Each nurse was sent a letter requesting completion of an online survey on workplace bullying. This is an example of what type of sampling method?

Answers a.

:

Simple random sampling

b.

Convenience sampling

c.

Purposive sampling

d.

Quota sampling

Response

Feedback: To achieve simple random sampling, elements are selected at random from the sampling frame. This goal can be accomplished in a variety of ways, limited only by the imagination of the researcher. A random number table is effective in selecting numbered elements from a master list. Simple random sampling ensures that each element of the population has an equal and independent chance of being chosen.

  1. 338

Question 12

A researcher consented 75 subjects, but 15 dropped out of the study while it was still in progress. What was the sample attrition rate?

Answers a.

:

20%

b.

15

c.

15%

d.

75%

Response

Feedback: Sample attrition rate formula = number subjects withdrawing ÷ sample size ´ 100%.For example, if a study had a sample size of 160 and 40 people withdrew from the study, the attrition rate would be 25%.

  1. 335

Question 13

To improve consistency in data collection the researcher should:

Answers: a.

recruit subjects who are of the same gender and age group. b.

request that subjects record their blood pressure at the same time each day.

c.

ensure that the same member of the research team distributes blood pressure logs to subjects.

Response Feedback:

p.508

Question 14

A researcher evaluates scores of a paper and pencil instrument with variables at the interval level of data using the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient statistical procedure. This is a test of:

Answers a.

: internal consistency reliability

b.

interrater reliability

  1. alternate forms reliability

d.

test-retest reliability

Response Feedback: page 373

Question 15

In a pilot study to help train a group of data collectors who will evaluate children’s pain using a FACES rating scale, the researcher examines the reliability of the scores of each data collector. This is an example of which type of reliability measure?

Answers: a.

Internal consistency reliability

Interrater reliability

c.

Test-retest reliability

  1. alternate forms reliability

Response Feedback: page 372

Question 16

A researcher is studying the effect of hypnosis on pain experienced during dental procedures. The researcher’s study has two groups: those who receive hypnosis during the procedure and those who receive no hypnosis. If the researcher plans to use a t-test for the statistical analysis, which would be the best way to measure pain for this study?

Answers: a.

numerical pain scale with a range from 0 to 100 b. patient report of presence or absence of pain

c.

pain scale where the participants report their pain as: none, some, intense

Response Feedback:

  1. 411

Question 17

A researcher attempted to recruit all 150 of the patients seen in the emergency department in a three-month period for diverticulitis, but only 120 consented to participate. What is the sample size?

Answers a.

:

120

b.

30

c.

150

d.

80%

Response

Feedback: A refusal rate is the number and percentage of subjects who declined

to participate in the study. Patients who refuse to participate are not part of the sample, since they were only potential subjects, not actually included in the sample. The refusal rate is calculated by dividing the number of potential subjects refusing to participate by the number of potential subjects meeting sampling criteria and multiplying the results by 100%.

p.334

Question 18

“To be considered eligible for the study, subjects had to be older than 21 years of age, hold a valid state driver’s license, and be able to fire a shotgun.” This is an example of which of the following?

Answers a.

:

Representativeness

b.

Exclusion plan

Sampling criteria

d.

Population element

Response

Feedback: Sampling criteria, also referred to as eligibility criteria or inclusion criteria, include a list of characteristics essential for membership or eligibility in the target population. The criteria are developed from the research problem, the purpose, a review of literature, the conceptual and operational definitions of the study variables, and the design. The sampling criteria determine the target population, and the sample is selected from the accessible population within the target population p 330

Question 19

A researcher develops a 7­point Likert scale to evaluate feelings of well­being in patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. The researcher administers this measure to other, similar patients in several medical centers. This is done in order to:

Answers a.

:

strengthen the operational definition of the constructs b.

improve the test-retest reliability

  1. increase interrater reliability

d.

Decrease mono-operation bias

Response Feedback: page 370

Question 20

Why are convenience samples used so frequently in nursing research, when a random sample would allow for greater generalizability?

Answers: a.

Nurses are limited to the populations they serve; many populations are

small and difficult to access.

b.

Cluster sampling is is inexpensive and time consuming. c.

There is less opportunity for systematic bias.

d.

Ordered lists of of all member of a patient populations are often available.

Response Feedback:

  1. 343

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