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NURS5366 quiz 2 Research

Which of the following study designs focuses on finding a cause and effect relationship among variables, but uses a lower level of control?

Phenomenology

Experimental

Descriptive

Quasiexperimental

Response

Feedback:

Question 3

There is no measurable difference in incidence of incarceration for adolescent children whose mothers work outside the home in comparison with those whose mothers do not work outside the home.

The above statement is an example of which of the following? Answer a.

s: Research

question

Research objective

Aim of the study

Null hypothesis

Response A hypothesis is a formal statement of the expected

Feedback: relationship or relationships between two or more variables in a specified population. The null hypothesis, also referred to as a statistical hypothesis, is used for

statistical testing and interpretation of statistical outcomes. The null hypothesis can be simple or complex and associative or causal.The null hypothesis states that there is no relationship between two or more variables. Extraneous variables exist in all studies and can affect the measurement of study variables and the relationships among them. Research objectives or aims are clear, concise, declarative statements that are expressed in the present tense, focus on one or two variables (or concepts), and indicate whether the variables are to be identified or described. A research question is a concise, interrogative statement that is worded in the present tense and includes one or more variables (or concepts).

Question 4

The report of a research study on a new medication to treat hypertension included this statement: “There was no significant difference in gender or age between the treatment and control groups.” Based on the statement, the reader of the report recognizes that gender and age were

demographic

Answer a. s:

moderator variables

confounding variables

Environmental variables

Response Age and Gender are demographic

Feedback:

variables

Question 5

How does a comparative descriptive design differ from a typical descriptive design? Answer a.

s: It differs in name only; they are essentially the same design.

It compares changes in phenomenon over time, whereas the typical descriptive design focuses on only one time period.

c.

It examines the relationship between multiple variables, whereas a typical descriptive design only evaluates the effect of one independent variable on one dependent variable.

It describes data from two different groups, whereas a typical descriptive design focuses on a single group.

Response The commonly used descriptive study design examines

Feedback: characteristics of a single sample. It identifies a phenomenon of interest and the variables within the phenomenon,develops conceptual and operational definitions of the variables, and describes the variables. The comparative descriptive design examines and describes differences in variables in two or more groups that occur naturally in the setting. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistical analyses may be used to examine differences between or among groups.

Question 6

A study’s hypothesis that a new surgical approach produces safer outcomes in immunosuppressed patients is tested in a fourteen-site research study across the United States. Subjects at all sites are randomly selected and randomly assigned to experimental versus control groups. What study design is used in this research project? Answer a.

s: Model testing design

Counterbalanced design

Quasi-experimental design

Randomized controlled

trial

Response A randomized clinical trial (RCT) contains random

Feedback

: assignment to experimental and clinical groups

and very often is multi-site. A fully randomized design contains both random selection and random assignment. Quasi-experimental designs facilitate the search for knowledge and examination of causality in situations in which complete control is not possible. Such designs lack a control group, or lack random assignment to group. The model-testing design requires that all variables relevant to the model be measured, using correlational statistics. A large, heterogeneous sample is required. Crossover, or counterbalancing, is a strategy designed to guard against possible erroneous conclusions resulting from carryover effects. With counterbalancing, subjects are randomly assigned to a specific sequencing of treatment conditions. This approach distributes the carryover effects equally throughout all the conditions of the study, thus canceling them out. To prevent an effect related to time, the same amount of time must be allotted to each treatment, and the crossover point must be related to time, not to the condition of the subject.

Question 7

A nurse researcher wishes to identify rates of pertussis infection in children less than one year of age and then again at 6 years of age to examine the relationship of immunization status on infection rates in this population. This is an example of which type of study design?

Answer a.

s: Correlational, longitudinal

Correlational, crosssectional

Quasi - experimental, longitudinal

Descriptive, crosssectional

Question 8

Which of the following is the practicing nurse’s most important source of researchable problems? Answer a.

s: Administrative mandates to conduct clinical research on every hospital unit

The nurse’s own clinical practice c.

Review of the literature

Nursing theories

Response The practice of nursing must be based on knowledge or

Feedback: evidence generated through research. Thus, clinical practice is an extremely important source for research problems. Problems can evolve from clinical observations. A review of patient records, treatment plans, and procedure manuals might reveal concerns or raise questions about practice that could be the basis for research problems.

  • Question 9

Which of the following sources would not be an appropriate source to include in a literature review for a research proposal? Answer a.

s: a blog post on vaccination side effects retrieved from www.parents.com

research study published in an online journal c.

A Website developed by a governmental agency d.

scholarly paper presented at a professional conference

Response Blog posts would not be considered appropriate

Feedback:

sources for research proposal development.

  • Question 10

The director of a major hospital conducts a study to discover the types of critical incidents that have occurred in the the hospital over the past 5 years. She compiles a list of all the critical incidents that occurred during that time. In this study, critical incidents serve as the___________. Answer a.

s: extraneous variable.

  1. study sample.

dependent variable.

Response In quantitative research, The dependent

Feedback: variable (response or outcome variable) is measured to examine the effect created by the independent variable. A dependent variable is the response behavior or outcome that the researcher wants to predict or explain. Extraneous variables exist in all studies and can affect the measurement of study variables and the

relationships among them. Extraneous variables are of primary concern in quantitative studies, because they can obscure one’s understanding of the relational or causal dynamics within the studies. Demographic variables are attributes of the subjects that are measured during the study and used to describe the sample.

Question 11

Which of the following would be landmark research?

Answer a.

s: A description of the importance of injecting immunizations in the proper location of the deltoid b.

The first paper on the effect of using insulin for type I diabetes in humans

The third in a series of four papers describing patterns of emergency room use in vacation communities

The discovery that during pancreatitis, the pancreas is actually digested by its own enzymes

Response Seminal studies are the first studies that prompted the

Feedback: initiation of the field of research. Landmark studies are the studies that led to an important development or a turning point in the field of research.

Question 12

A researcher wishes to conduct a correlational study to determine whether there is a relationship between stress levels and relapse rates among patients who have chronic conditions. In order to determine the existence of a relationship between these two variables, the researcher will attempt to:

Answer a. s: randomly assign subjects to groups b. obtain a large range of possible scores.

manipulate the level of stress in study subjects.

provide lengthy descriptions of subject's behaviors.

Response

Feedback:

Question 13

In the following hypothesis, what is the independent variable?

There is no measurable difference in incidence of acne in 15-year-olds who are placed on a chocolate-free diet. Answer a.

s: Acne

Fifteen-yearolds

Chocolate-free diet

Response A dependent variable is the response behavior or

Feedback

: outcome that the researcher wants to predict or explain. An independent variable is a stimulus or activity that is manipulated or varied by the researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable. In this example, acne is the dependent variable and removal of chocolate from the diet is the independent variable.

Question 14

In the following purpose statement, what kind of variable is number of days absent from class?

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a generous weekly allowance and twice-weekly text messages from parents on number of days absent from class, in freshman college students. Answer a.

s: Dependent

variable

Extraneous variable

Independent variable

Response A dependent variable is the response behavior, or

Feedback: outcome that the researcher wants to predict or explain. In this example, number of days absent from class is the dependent variable. An independent variable is a stimulus or activity that is manipulated or varied by the researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable. The independent variable is also called an intervention, treatment, or experimental

variable. Demographic variables are attributes of the subjects that are measured during the study and used to describe the sample. Extraneous variables exist in all studies and can affect the measurement of study variables and the relationships among them.

Question 15

A stimulus or activity that is measured to examine the effect created by the independent variable best describes a(n) _____ variable. Answer a.

s: Demograph ic

Dependent

Independen t

Extraneous

Response In quantitative research, the independent

Feedback

: variable (intervention, treatment, or experimental variable) is manipulated or varied by the researcher to cause an effect on the dependent variable. The dependent variable (response or outcome variable) is measured to examine the

effect created by the independent variable. An independent variable is a stimulus or activity that is manipulated or varied by the researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable. A dependent variable is the response behavior or outcome that the researcher wants to predict or explain. Extraneous variables exist in all studies and can affect the measurement of study variables and the relationships among them. Extraneous variables are of primary concern in quantitative studies, because they can obscure one’s understanding of the relational or causal dynamics within the studies. Demographic variables are attributes of the subjects that are measured during the study and used to describe the sample.

Question 16

Which of the following represents a concise, clear statement of the specific goal or aim of a research study? Answer a.

s: The purpose of the project was to define changes in blood pressure over time with the four most prevalent treatment modalities prescribed by primary care physicians in the greater Chicago area.

b.

The problem that prompted the study was ignorance surrounding the causation and diagnosis of meningococcal meningitis, especially among soldiers in uniform, and this constituted a significant gap in the literature.

c.

The phenomenon of depression experienced by school-aged children is an under-researched topic in light of recent research demonstrating the correlation between childhood obesity and depression.

d.

Despite the fact that studying the disease, especially from standpoints of prevention and early detection, is costly and time-consuming, it represents a clear priority, since treatment itself is remarkably costly and those affected are not likely to experience even short remissions without early intervention.

Response The research purpose is a concise, clear statement of

Feedback: the specific goal or aim of the study that is generated from the research problem. A research problem is an area of concern where there is a gap in the knowledge base needed for nursing practice. Research topics are concepts, phenomena of interest, or broad problem areas that researchers can focus on to enhance evidence-based nursing. One source of research problems is research priorities identified by funding agencies and specialty groups.

Question 17

Which of the following is a properly stated research hypothesis? Answer a.

s: There is no relationship between children’s homelessness and length of hospital stay, verbal skills, and fear of separation from parents.

If a child is homeless, that child is likely to have poor verbal skills, more difficulty separating from parents, and a longer hospital stay.

Homelessness in children is associated with length of hospital stay, verbal skills, and fear of separation from parents.

Response A hypothesis is a formal statement of the expected

Feedback: relationship or relationships between two or more variables in a specified population. The hypothesis translates the problem and purpose into a clear explanation or prediction of the expected results or outcomes of the study. A hypothesis (1) specifies the variables the researcher will manipulate or measure, (2) identifies the population the researcher will examine, (3)

indicates the type of research, and (4) directs the conduct of the study. Hypotheses are described using the terms in the following four categories: (1) associative versus causal, (2) simple versus complex, (3) directional versus nondirectional, and (4) null versus research.

Question 18

A conceptual map is defined as ________. Answer a.

s: A set of highly abstract, related constructs b.

An integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be

used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon

A relational statement connecting objects, phenomena, or ideas

A diagram that expresses the interrelationships of concepts and statements in a framework

Response A framework is the abstract, logical structure of

Feedback

: meaning that guides the development of the study

and enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing’s body of knowledge. A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning. A construct is a concept at a high level of abstraction with a very general meaning. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. A conceptual map is a diagram that expresses the interrelationships of the concepts and statements in a framework. A conceptual model is a set of highly abstract, related constructs. It broadly explains phenomena of interest, expresses assumptions, and reflects a philosophical stance.

Question 19

The intervention that the researcher manipulates is the _____ variable. Answer a.

s: Dependent

Independe nt

Confoundi ng

Extraneous

Response In quantitative research, the independent variable

Feedback: (intervention, treatment, or experimental variable) is

manipulated or varied by the researcher to cause an effect on the dependent variable. The dependent variable (response or outcome variable) is measured to examine the effect created by the independent variable. An independent variable is a stimulus or activity that is manipulated or varied by the researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable. A dependent variable is the response behavior or outcome that the researcher wants to predict or explain. Extraneous variables exist in all studies and can affect the measurement of study variables and the relationships among them. Extraneous variables are of primary concern in quantitative studies, because they can obscure one’s understanding of the relational or causal dynamics within the studies. The extraneous variables that are not recognized until the study is in process or are recognized before the study is initiated but cannot be controlled are referred to as confounding variables. Demographic variables are attributes of the subjects that are measured during the study and used to describe the sample.

Question 20

In the following research question, what is the independent variable?

Can diabetics on oral antiglycemic medications achieve better control of blood sugar, as measured by Hgb A1C, if they meditate on a daily basis?

Answer a.

s: Hgb A1C

Oral antiglycemic medications

Meditation

Blood sugar

Response An independent variable is a stimulus or activity that is

Feedback: manipulated or varied by the researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable. The independent variable is also called an intervention, treatment, or experimental variable. In this example, nausea and vomiting are dependent variables and guided imagery and relaxation techniques are independent variables.

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