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NURS5366 Quiz 2

Question 1

A stimulus or activity that is measured to examine the effect created by the independent variable best describes a(n) _____ variable.

In quantitative research, the independent variable(intervention, treatment, or experimental variable) is manipulated or varied by the researcher to cause an effect on the dependent variable. The dependent variable (response or outcome variable) is measured to examine the effect created by the independent variable. An independent variable is a stimulus or activity that is manipulated or varied by the researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable. A dependent variable is the response behavior or outcome that the researcher wants to predict or explain. Extraneous variables exist in all studies and can affect the measurement of study variables and the relationships among them. Extraneous variables are of primary concern in quantitative studies, because they can obscure one’s understanding of the relational or causal dynamics within the studies. Demographic variables are attributes of the subjects that are measured during the study and used to describe the sample.

Demographic

Dependent

Independent

Extraneous

Question 2

A study’s hypothesis that a new surgical approach produces safer outcomes in immunosuppressed patients is tested in a fourteen-site research study across the United States. Subjects at all sites are randomly selected and randomly assigned to experimental versus control groups. What study design is used in this research project?

Randomized controlled trial

Model testing design

Counterbalanced design

Quasi-experimental design

A randomized clinical trial (RCT) contains random assignment to experimental and clinical groups and very often is multi-site. A fully randomized design contains both random selection and random assignment. Quasi-experimental designs facilitate the search for knowledge and examination of causality in situations in which complete control is not possible. Such designs lack a control group, or lack random assignment to group. The model-testing design requires that all variables relevant to the model be measured, using correlational statistics. A large, heterogeneous sample is required. Crossover, or counterbalancing, is a strategy designed to guard against possible erroneous conclusions resulting from carryover effects. With counterbalancing, subjects are randomly assigned to a specific sequencing of treatment conditions. This approach distributes the carryover effects equally throughout all the conditions of the study, thus canceling them out. To prevent an effect related to time, the same amount of time must be allotted to each treatment, and the crossover point must be related to time, not to the condition of the subject.

Question 3

The director of a major hospital conducts a study to discover the types of critical incidents that have occurred in the the hospital over the past 5 years. She compiles a list of all the critical incidents that occurred during that time. In this study, critical incidents serve as the___________.

study sample.

extraneous variable.

dependent variable.

In quantitative research, the independent

variable (intervention, treatment, or experimental variable) is manipulated or varied by the researcher to cause an effect on the dependent variable. The dependent variable (response or outcome variable) is measured to examine the effect created by the independent variable. An independent variable is a stimulus or activity that is manipulated or varied by the researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable. A dependent variable is the response behavior or outcome that the researcher wants to predict or explain. Extraneous variables exist in all studies and can affect the measurement of study variables and the relationships among them. Extraneous variables are of primary concern in quantitative studies, because they can obscure one’s understanding of the relational or causal dynamics within the studies. Demographic variables are attributes of the subjects that are measured during the study and used to describe the sample.

Question 4

How does a comparative descriptive design differ from a typical descriptive design?

It compares changes in phenomenon over time, whereas the typical descriptive design focuses on only one time period.

It examines the relationship between multiple variables, whereas a typical descriptive design only evaluates the effect of one independent variable on one dependent variable.

It describes data from two different groups, whereas a typical descriptive design focuses on a single group.

The commonly used descriptive study design examines characteristics of a single sample. It identifies a phenomenon of interest and the variables within the phenomenon, develops conceptual and operational definitions of the variables, and describes the variables.The comparative descriptive design examines and describes differences in variables in two or more groups that occur naturally in the setting. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistical analyses may be used to examine differences between or among groups.

Question 5

In the following hypothesis, what is the independent variable?

There is no measurable difference in incidence of acne in 15-year-olds who are placed on a chocolate-free diet.

Chocolate-free diet

Fifteen-year-olds

Acne

A dependent variable is the response behavior or outcome that the researcher wants to predict or explain. An independent variable is a stimulus or activity that is manipulated or varied by the researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable. In this example, acne is the dependent variable and removal of chocolate from the diet is the independent variable.

Question 6

In the following purpose statement, what kind of variable is number of days absent from class?

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a generous weekly allowance and twice-weekly text messages from parents on number of days absent from class, in freshman college students.

Extraneous variable

Independent variable

Dependent variable

A dependent variable is the response behavior, or outcome that the researcher wants to predict or explain. In this example, number of days absent from class is the dependent variable. An independent variable is a stimulus or activity that is manipulated or varied by the researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable. The independent variable is also called an intervention, treatment, or experimental

variable. Demographicvariables are attributes of the subjects that are measured during the study and used to describe the sample. Extraneous variables exist in all studies and can affect the measurement of study variables and the relationships among them.

Question 7

In the following research question, what is the independent variable? Can diabetics on oral antiglycemic medications achieve better control of blood sugar, as measured by Hgb A1C, if they meditate on a daily basis?

Oral antiglycemic medications

Hgb A1C

Blood sugar

Meditation

An independent variable is a stimulus or activity that is manipulated or varied by the researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable. The independent variable is also called an intervention, treatment, or experimental variable. In this example, nausea and vomiting are dependent variables and guided imagery and relaxation techniques are independent variables.

Question 8

Which of the following sources would not be an appropriate source to include in a literature review for a research proposal?

research study published in an online journal

a blog post on vaccination side effects retrieved from www.parents.com

scholarly paper presented at a professional conference

A Website developed by a governmental agency

Blog posts would not be considered appropriate sources for research proposal development.

Question 9

The intervention that the researcher manipulates is the _____ variable.

Extraneous

Confounding

Dependent

Independent

In quantitative research, the independent variable (intervention, treatment, or experimental variable) is manipulated or varied by the researcher to cause an effect on the dependent variable. The dependent variable(response or outcome variable) is measured to examine the effect created by the independent variable. An independent variable is a stimulus or activity that is manipulated or varied by the researcher to create an effect on the dependent variable. A dependent variable is the response behavior or outcome that the researcher wants to predict or explain. Extraneous variables exist in all studies and can affect the measurement of study variables and the relationships among them. Extraneous variables are of primary concern in quantitative studies, because they can obscure one’s understanding of the relational or causal dynamics within the studies. The extraneous variables that are not recognized until the study is in process or are recognized before the study is initiated but cannot be controlled are referred to as confounding variables. Demographic variables are attributes of the subjects that are measured during the study and used to describe the sample.

Question 10

There is no measurable difference in incidence of incarceration for adolescent children whose mothers work outside the home in comparison with those whose mothers do not work outside the home.

The above statement is an example of which of the following?

Research objective

Research question

Null hypothesis

Aim of the study

A hypothesis is a formal statement of the expected relationship or relationships between two or more variables in a specified population. The null hypothesis, also referred to as a statistical hypothesis, is used for statistical testing and interpretation of statistical outcomes. The null hypothesis can be simple or complex and associative or causal. The null hypothesis states that there is no relationship between two or more variables.Extraneous variables exist in all studies and can affect the measurement of study variables and the relationships among them. Research objectives or aims are clear, concise,declarative statements that are expressed in the present tense, focus on one or two variables (or concepts), and indicate whether the variables are to be identified or described. A research question is a concise, interrogative statement that is worded in the present tense and includes one or more variables (or concepts).

Question 11

Which of the following could serve as a primary source of information that might be available to someone writing a biography of Jonas Salk who died in 1995?

A previous history of his work written about him

A published interview with one of his lab technicians

An article about Dr. Salk in a 1960's journal.

A diary written by Dr. Salk.

The published literature contains primary and secondary sources. A primary source is written by the person who originated, or is responsible for generating, the ideas published. A research publication published by the person or people who conducted the research is a primary source.A theoretical book or paper written by the theorist who developed the theory or conceptual content is a primary source. A secondary source summarizes or quotes content from primary sources. Thus, authors of secondary sources paraphrase the works of researchers and theorists. The problem with a secondary source is that the author has interpreted the works of someone else, and this interpretation is influenced by that author’s perception and bias. Authors have sometimes spread errors and misinterpretations by using secondary sources rather than primary sources. You should use mostly primary sources to write literature reviews. Secondary sources are used only if primary sources cannot be located or if a secondary source contains creative ideas or a unique organization of information not found in a primary source.

Question 12

Which of the following is a properly stated research hypothesis?

Homelessness in children is associated with length of hospital stay, verbal skills, and fear of separation from parents.

There is no relationship between children’s homelessness and length of hospital stay, verbal skills, and fear of separation from parents.

If a child is homeless, that child is likely to have poor verbal skills, more difficulty separating from parents, and a longer hospital stay.

A hypothesis is a formal statement of the expected relationship or relationships between two or more variables in a specified population. The hypothesis translates the problem and purpose into a clear explanation or prediction of the expected results or outcomes of the study. A hypothesis (1) specifies the variables the researcher will manipulate or measure, (2) identifies the population the researcher will examine, (3) indicates the type of research, and (4) directs the conduct of the study. Hypotheses are described using the terms in the following four categories: (1) associative versus causal, (2) simple versus complex, (3) directional versus nondirectional, and (4) null versus research.

Question 13

Which of the following represents a concise, clear statement of the specific goal or aim of a research study?

The phenomenon of depression experienced by school-aged children is an

under-researched topic in light of recent research demonstrating the correlation between childhood obesity and depression.

Despite the fact that studying the disease, especially from standpoints of prevention and early detection, is costly and time-consuming, it represents a clear priority, since treatment itself is remarkably costly and those affected are not likely to experience even short remissions without early intervention.

The problem that prompted the study was ignorance surrounding the causation and diagnosis of meningococcal meningitis, especially among soldiers in uniform, and this constituted a significant gap in the literature.

The purpose of the project was to define changes in blood pressure over time with the four most prevalent treatment modalities prescribed by primary care physicians in the greater Chicago area.

The research purpose is a concise, clear statement of the specific goal or aim of the study that is generated from the research problem. A research problem is an area of concern where there is a gap in the knowledge base needed for nursing practice. Research topics are concepts,phenomena of interest, or broad problem areas that researchers can focus on to enhance evidencebased nursing. One source of research problems is research priorities identified by funding agencies and specialty groups.

Question 14

Which of the following would be landmark research?

The first paper on the effect of using insulin for type I diabetes in humans

The third in a series of four papers describing patterns of emergency room use in vacation communities

A description of the importance of injecting immunizations in the proper location of the deltoid

The discovery that during pancreatitis, the pancreas is actually digested by its own enzymes

Seminal studies are the first studies that prompted the initiation of the field of research. Landmark studies are the studies that led to an important development or a turning point in the field of research.

Question 15

The report of a research study on a new medication to treat hypertension included this statement: “There was no significant difference in gender or age between the treatment and control groups.” Based on the statement, the reader of the report recognizes that gender and age were

demographic variables

moderator variables

confounding variables

Environmental variables

Age and Gender are demographic variables

Question 16

A researcher wishes to conduct a correlational study to determine whether there is a relationship between stress levels and relapse rates among patients who have chronic conditions. In order to determine the existence of a relationship between these two variables, the researcher will attempt to:

randomly assign subjects to groups

provide lengthy descriptions of subject's behaviors.

manipulate the level of stress in study subjects.

obtain a large range of possible scores.

Question 17

A nurse researcher wishes to identify rates of pertussis infection in children less than one year of age and then again at 6 years of age to examine the relationship of immunization status on infection rates in this population. This is an example of which type of study design?

Descriptive, cross-sectional

Quasi - experimental, longitudinal

Correlational, longitudinal

Correlational, cross-sectional

Question 18

Which of the following study designs focuses on finding a cause and effect relationship among variables, but uses a lower level of control?

Phenomenology

Descriptive

Quasi-experimental

Experimental

Question 19

A conceptual map is defined as ________.

An integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon

A diagram that expresses the interrelationships of concepts and statements in a framework

A relational statement connecting objects, phenomena, or ideas

A set of highly abstract, related constructs

A framework is the abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing’s body of knowledge. A concept is a term that abstractly describes and names an object, a phenomenon, or an idea, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning. A construct is a concept at a high level of abstraction with a very general meaning. A theory consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control that phenomenon. A conceptual map is a diagram that expresses the interrelationships of the concepts and statements in a framework. A conceptual model is a set of highly abstract, related constructs. It broadly explains phenomena of interest, expresses assumptions, and reflects a philosophical stance.

The practice of nursing must be based on knowledge or evidence generated through research. Thus, clinical practice is an extremely important source for research problems. Problems can evolve from clinical observations.A review of patient records, treatment plans, and procedure manuals might reveal concerns or raise questions about practice that could be the basis for research problems.

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