Mutation changes Assignment Help
What is mutation?
Mutation is the change in genetic sequence that can also result in variation. But here variation does not necessarily mean that the resulted changes will get transferred to the upcoming generation or it will always be beneficial rather mutation can be either harmful, beneficial or neutral (i.e. neither it will harm any individual nor will be beneficial). Mutation can either occur randomly or it can be the cause of chemical changes that is face by the living organism.
Types of mutation:
Mutation can be of different types as per the changes they bring in the sequence of the DNA. They are:
1. Point mutation: Here single change in nucleotide occurs.
2. Silent mutation: It codes for same or similar amino acid.
3. Missense mutation: It codes for different amino acid.
4. Nonsense mutation: It codes for stop codon that terminates the amino acid chain.
5. Insertion: The addition of one or more nucleotides in the sequence of DNA is called insertion.
6. Deletion: It deletes one or more nucleotides form the sequence of DNA.
7. Duplication: In this case nucleotide sequence gets duplicated either benefiting the individual or affecting them.
These mutations can be the result of over exposure to radiation or change in chemical composition in the body. It can also be the result of any misbalance activity that occurs in the body.
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There are some of the other types of mutation that result in different types of changes. This include: substitution mutation: in this case exchange of one base with the other takes place. Frame shift mutation: in this case alteration in the sequence of DNA takes place that makes it incorrectly readable.
Causes of mutation:
The main causes of mutation are due to the influence from chemicals and radiation and the other is the failure of DNA to be copies in the accurate way. Both these results in change in DNA sequence that result in mutation. In fact, mutation can occur at any level whether it can be cellular level, whole organism, DNA level or the molecular level. It effect can also defer with the changes it brings in the individuals body.
Mutation can be in somatic cell of the body as well as germ cell of the body. Somatic mutations mean those that are not transferred to the offspring whereas those mutations that occur in germ line are transferred to the next generation.
Changes bought by mutation:
1. Mutation can result in variation and this variation can make individual different in a group. It can also serve them as advantage for the survival and hence these beneficial changes when transferred to offspring over a period of time can be help them have advantage over the other.
2. Mutation brings changes in the protein sequence and this can alters the activity of the protein and their function as well.
3. Mutation can also have negative effect making the gene off and hence resulting in certain kind of disorder in the body.
4. It can also reduce the fitness of any organism.
5. Some mutation can even be lethal that effects life resulting in evens the death of the organism.
6. Sometimes, even some mutational change reverses the gene sequence that restores the original gene supporting the life of organism.
Some of the examples that show the benefits of mutation for human beings are:
1. Mutation that resulted in sickle cell anemia helps to confer advantage against malaria.
2. People having atherosclerosis have long life and diet that is preferred by the ancestors.
3. Lactose tolerance due to mutation has helped people use more of the milk product.
Some of the examples that result in disadvantage due to mutation are:
1. Many diseases are the result of genetic mutation like that of cancer, diabetes, asthma etc.
2. Mutation caused due to non- disjunction in chromosome results in Down syndrome that becomes life threatening for individuals suffering form it.
3. Beside the above points, there are many problems that an individual can have due to mutation and these can be rest to their as well.
Mutation brings lots of changes in the body; on one hand some of these changes can benefit that person whereas other can be result in disaster for their health.