Managers are considered as a backbone in an organization. To take great managing from theory to practice, the author says, you must know three things about a person: her strengths, the triggers that activate those strengths, and how she learns. (Marcus, 2019). The managers also have to face many challenges and risks in today’s changing organizations. The report is thus based on the impact of values, ethics and diversity on the culture of an organisation and the role, behaviour and performance of managers within that organisation. In order to determine the behavioural impact of managers on the organization interview method has been used on close ended statements. The technique of Qualitative research has been used. The target audience of this research includes co-workers and subordinates. Sampling has been done wherein all the approachable people have been questioned including all the employees from whom the relatable information can be gathered. At the end of the report a proper conclusion has been drawn which states that how the ethics and difference in culture and values impacts the organization and performance of manager within that organisation.
Ethics and culture in an organization are considered as the morale booster of the company, which is normally taken as a reflection of the managers or the owners of the company. Diversity in a workplace is not directly and ethical issue. It directs to the various people from different cultures and backgrounds who are working in the company. This difference in culture and ethics has resulted in the diverse teams originating from various religions, cultures, ethics and gender backgrounds (Andron, D. 2013). There are both benefits and disadvantages of diverse workforce. One demoralised impact of cultural diversity within the work surroundings is that the swollen propensity of authoritative employees to relish relative clashes. Socially numerous specialists have numerous suppositions, contemplations, convictions, standards, traditions, qualities, patterns, and conventions. Job of managers during this manner is to incorporate the flexibility of their employee and as wants be immediate them towards accomplishing the set focuses of the business. To understand the roles and function of the managers in today’s changing economy and how the ethics and organizational culture impact the business, I will take a case study of UBER. Uber is an organization which arranges transportation and has a head office in California. Uber at first began the administration of ridesharing however at this point it has expanded its business to nourishment conveyance, bike sharing. The explanation for this association as contextual analysis is the decent variety in the working society of the representatives as the Uber has tasks in around 785 metropolitan regions throughout the globe. Uber could be considered as the best example of the sharing economy in a way that change in industries is also been referred as Uberisation (Isaac, 2017).
The main feature of the analysis is to grasp the impact of ethics and cultural diversity of workers on the role and performance of managers within the organization. As when there is a huge diversity of culture in an organisation, it increases the functionality of managers to control the workforce accordingly without any conflict and ethical issues between the employees.
A research design is a complete framework which helps in analysing the variables that are specified the research problem. Research can be mentioned as the scientific method which helps in solving the problem and mostly used to analyse the potentials of the market. It includes investigating the entire problem and there possible solving procedures by inspecting the different techniques subsequently and reaching at one best technique, pondering all the solutions allotted by the researcher (Yin, 1981). A case study is an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context, especially when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident (Yin and Campbell, n.d.).
Data for this study will be collected through two main sources; the primary and the secondary sources. Primary data will be collected from the questionnaires and direct interviews. On contrary, secondary data would be collected through sources like customer feedbacks, newspaper articles and other researches. Research conducted by different researchers will also act as the source of secondary data (Buckingham, M. 2005).
Data collected from secondary source would reflect the naturally occurring data, which refers that data can be collected from inside and outside the company. Secondary data will also include the information gathered by judging the activities of managers on day-to-day basis which is a form of naturally occurring data Henning, M., Jäger, S., & Rautenbach, D. 2017).
Sampling Technique Used
A sample is a few people chosen from a more extensive population for study reason. Sampling technique implies the strategies or methodology utilized by the analyst to pick the sample out of the entire population. This work was done in various departments of Uber like IT department, customer support, Finance department, policy and communication department, drivers of cabs etc. Convenient sampling is been used, which means selecting the approachable population among the employees, from whom information can be obtained.
Analysis of Data
The data collected from the primary source is analysed using simple and statistical methods and representation on tables. Here dependent variable will be the performance of managers and roles of managers in the organization and independent variable would be the ethics and diversity in the organization.
Similarly, data collected from a secondary source which is the internet, journals, and magazines are analysed on the basis of customers’ feedback towards the Uber services and their driver’s behaviour during the rides taken by them (Longenecker, C., Neubert, M., & Fink, L. 2007).
Vision and Values of the Organisation
Uber's mission is to provide transportation — for everybody, all over. And vision is smarter transportation with less vehicles and larger access. Transportation that is more secure, less expensive, and increasingly solid (Skrabanek, 2018). According to the Gareth Morgan - Images of Organization’s the Uber can be described in eight metaphors (Morgan, 2016):
Organism: Organism will define UBER as the growing company, at the initial stage the company only provided the taxi services where people can share the rides, but now the company provides the food delivery service and other services also (Lu, H., Liu, X., Chen, H., & Long, R. 2017).
Brain: Brain metaphor describes the organization as the workings of it includes collecting data from the sources like customers as the feedback of daily riders, and analyzes and deliver the appropriate decision by utilizing the knowledge of the employees and managers to rectify the mistakes (Isaac, M. 2017).
Culture: According to Financial review, the culture of UBER is still a work in progress, a tangible process inclusive of 6 steps has been developed by Dara Khosrowshahi. Along with addressing issues of external safety, internal issues such as driver’s benefits, safety are going to be resolved too. A positive impact on the society is expected out of the changing culture at Uber. (Redrup, 2019)
Diversity: Uber, long critical news the demographics of its staff, has free its second diversity report ever and initial public report underneath new CEO Dara Khosrowshahi. very little progress has been created, notably with respect to illustration from black and Latinx staff (Bhuiyan, 2019)
Psychic Prison: UBER can be explained in psychic prison metaphor, as described in the case study the employees of the organization complained about the pressure created on them to be the best ride sharing company whether it required anything from them to do that, which created a feeling of excessive pressure on the employees as the prisoners (Weigelt, C., & Miller, D. 2013).
Flux or Transformation: Transformation metaphor can explain UBER vision and mission of keep growing and providing an opportunity by setting the world in motion. Recovering from bad PR, & constantly taking steps to prosper & conquer.
Domination: Domination metaphor is suited for UBER and it is explained in the case where a female employee has been mistreated by the manager in Las Vegas, and to hide these issue managers threatened the employees by hitting them with baseball bat to not disclose this matter in public.
Machine: Machine is considered a best metaphor for any organization. It explains the organisational chart and working of the employees (Ying-yi, H., & Melody Manchi, C. 2013).
Uber structure has been typically terribly progressive with prime supporter and former business executive Travis Kalanick yielding huge power and micromanaging the ride-hailing monster. Absence of Kalanick's initiative aptitudes caused a progression of outrages as well as tormenting, segregation at work setting, inappropriate behaviour then forth. Kalanick required to go away thanks to these outrages. once Dara Khosrowshahi clothed to be new business executive in 2017, Uber authoritative structure has been exposed to specific changes (Dudovskiy, 2018). The structure of Uber are often illustrated by figure below:
Ethics and Diversity
When interviewed the current and former employees of the UBER during the research I found that there were many accusations of the employees who either saw or were liable to episodes and who solicited to stay mysterious in light of the fact that from privacy assertions and dread of striking back. One Uber administrator grabbed female employee inappropriately at an organization retreat in Las Vegas. An executive yelled a homophobic slur at a subordinate amid a warmed showdown in a gathering. Another administrator undermined to beat a failing to meet expectations worker's head in with a slugging stick. Also many employees reported that higher management supported the staffs that were close to them and also best grades were given to those employees only (Longenecker, P. 2012). Uber representatives utilized cocaine in the washrooms at private gatherings, said three participants, and a supervisor grabbed a few female workers. One worker seized a private transport, filled it with companions and took it for a moonlight trip, the participants said.
Uber, since a long time ago contradicted to detailing the socio economics of its representatives, has discharged its second decent variety report ever and first open report under new CEO Dara Khosrowshahi. The organization saw a drop in dark representatives, which currently make up 8.1 percent of its workforce, down from 8.8 percent a year ago. There was a little uptick in Latinx specialists at 6.1 percent of the worker base, up from 5.6 percent. Uber's initiative is still transcendently white. The level of dark workers in those jobs represented 2.8 percent, contrasted and 2.3 percent a year ago. Portrayal of administrators who are Latinx was 1.4 percent, up from 0.8 percent. In innovation related positions, those numbers are additionally amazing. Hispanic or Latinx representatives made up just 3 percent of all tech representatives while dark specialists just made up 2.6 percent. There were zero Latinx or dark representatives in senior or authoritative technical positions (Mujtaba, B. 2015). Khosrowshahi having a 12 year track record at Expedia, his blog describes the intensive program of internal culture reforms inclusive of 20 focal groups, ideologies submitted by more than 1200 employees where in integrity shall be the core value of all their decisions. “ Uber’s bro culture” is considered to be the ultimate outcome to create a workplace of fairness & one’s safety. (Business Ethics, 2019)
The main reason behind this research was to analyse the impact of ethics, values and cultural diversity in the organizational on the role and functions of managers, and their performances in the organisation as the economy is changing rapidly now days and affecting the working culture of the organizations. Uber is an example which clearly defines the diversity of culture in an organization as it has around 785 offices all over the world and thus huge numbers of employees with different religions, ethics, values, and cultural differences. It increases the roles and functions of the managers as they have to control the workforce, so that there is no conflict related to ethical values between the employees. This research involves a case study of Uber which reflects that due to high cultural difference there were issues within the employees as Uber gave more importance to whites in comparison to blacks. Also the working ethics of Uber created a huge dissatisfaction within the employees which was due to the managers who gave an undue advantage to the employees who were personally close to them and also certain misbehaviour was conducted with female employee which was hidden by managers who even threatened the employees to not disclose the matter to the public or outside the company. After having faced a number of issues, the company is now progressing towards ‘We do the right thing”, this shall be considered a shift from the company’s past of ‘hustling’ & ‘toe-stepping’ (Osolla, 2019). A complete evaluation and encouraging the participation of women shall be a generous part of their cultural renovation process. Thus, this research thus helped in analysing that ethical behaviour of an organization does affect the role and functionality of managers and their performance towards the employees.
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