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Linguistics Phonological Rules

2. Assimilation

ex. Nasalization

3. Consonant


4. consonant insertion

often in anticipation of upcoming sound:

"warmth":[wɑɹmθ] vs. [wɑɹmpθ]

"length": [lɛŋθ] vs. [lɛŋkθ]

5. Deletion

delete a sound

6. Deletion

(in fast speech)

"memory": [mɛməɹi] > [mɛmɹi]

"mystery": [mɪstəɹi] > [mɪstɹi]

7. Deletion, and strengthening

It's her car:

/ɪts hər kɑr/ -> /ɪts hər khɑr/

8. Dissimilation

sounds become different

9. Dissimilation

E.g. Latin derivational suffix -alis

- when added to a noun that contained the liquid "l", became "aris"

10. flapping


/lɪtl̩/ -> /lɪɾl/

11. Insertion

add a sound

12. Insertion


læns -> lænts

13. Metathesis

change order of sounds

14. Metathesis

Done to ease pronunciation; often due to error ask > aks relevant > revelant [rɛvələnt] asterisk > asteriks /ˈæstərɪks/

15. Nasalization

nasals influence surrounding sounds (place)

16. Place assimilation

late bell:

/leɪt bɛl/ -> /leɪp bɛl/

([b]&[p] are both bilabial)

17. Place assimilation, Strengthening, Vowel Insertion

Ten pages:

/tɛn peɪdʒz/ -> /tɛm pheɪdʒəz/

([m]&[p] are bilabial, aspirated, and insertion of [ə])

18. Strengthening

becoming aspirated park -> pHark

19. Strengthening, and De-voicing.

Two cups:

/tu kəpz/ -> /thu khəps/


20. Vowel


21. vowel insertion

a short unstressed [ə] is inserted if a consonant cluster is difficult/impossible, e.g. Dmitri

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