Linguistics COMM Exam 1

  1. Public (johari open to yourself and others window)

EX - everything you openly disclose like music, moral values

2. blind area

facets of yourself that are readily apparent to others through your interpersonal communication but you're not area of

EX -- strengths others see in you

3. 2 types of uncertainty: cognitive & behavioral

cognitive - I don't know what to think about you behavioral - I don't know what to do

4. 3. hidden area

parts of yourself that you're aware of but you hide from others

EX - destructive thoughts

5. 4. unknown area

aspects of yourself that you and others aren't aware of

EX - unconscious motives

6. actor-observer effect

tendency of people to make external attributions regarding their own behaviors

example - our own impolite remarks during family conflicts are viewed as "reactions to their hurtful communication" rather than "messages caused by our own insensitivity"

7. adaptive responses

emotions fluctuate

8. affect displays

intentional or unintentional nonverbal behaviors that display actual or foreigned emotions

9. affect displays:

intentional

babies learn to facially communicate anger and happiness to get what they want

10. affect displays:

unintentional

infants instinctively display facial expressions of distress, disgust & interest

11. algebraic impressions

calculating each new thing we learn about a person

When we form algebraic expressions, we don't place equal value on every piece of information in the equation. Instead, we weight some pieces of information more heavily than others, depending on the information's importance and it's positivity or negativity.

EXAMPLE - your perception of potential romantic partners' physical attractiveness, intelligence, and personal values will likely carry more weight when calculating your impression than their favorite color or breakfast cereal

12. appraisal

the way you interpret the situation

13. appraisal

an individual's assessment of a particular situation

14. Assessing IPC Competence

adaptability conversational management conversational involvement empathy effectiveness appropriateness

  1. attachment anxiety HIGH - you perceive yourself as unlovable and unworthy - your thoughts may result

from being ignored or even abused as a child

LOW - you feel lovable and worthy of attention - reflections of a supportive and affectionate upbringing

16. attachment avoidance

the degree to which someone desires close interpersonal ties

HIGH - you'd likely experience little interest in intimacy, preferring solitude instead

LOW - you seek intimacy and interdependence with others - learning from childhood that such connections are essential for happiness and well-being

17. attachment theory

our interpersonal relationships and their dependability are created through our relationship with our caregivers as children

18. attributions

we create explanations for others' comments of behaviors answers to the "why" questions like "why didn't my partner return my text message?"

19. attribution theory

attempts to describe and explain mental and communicative processes involved in placing meaning on everyday behaviors

20. behavioral expression

things you can control/use inside feelings and show them on the outside - crying

21. cognitive appraisal theory

- emotional reactions are situational

- emotional reactions vary from person to person

22. common appraisals

attribution & attention

EX: loss ->> sadness danger/threat ->>fear

23. communication

How people portray their thoughts and feelings in verbal and non-verbal ways

24. Complaint-counter complaint

counter complaint - just go back and forth, no resolution

25. components of IPC

appropriateness effectiveness ethics

26. Components of IPC - appropriateness

based on your ability to communicate in ways that are expected of you

27. Components of IPC - Effectiveness

getting point across; being able to achieve goals you set

28. Components of IPC - Ethics

lying, gas lighting, purposefully hurting someone

29. components of principles of interpersonal communication - dyadic

at least two people

30. components of principles of interpersonal communication - dynamic

always changing, can change within the interaction

31. components of principles of interpersonal communication - transactional

shared meaning, back and forth

32. components of the self

self-awareness, self-concept, self-esteem

33. culture

an established coherent set of beliefs, attitudes, values, and practiced and shared by a large group of people

America's perceived as : freedom, religious, loud, fat

34. demand-withdraw pattern

nothing gets accomplished

  1. DETERMINING how do other people act in similar situations

ATTRIBUTION- consensus high - external low - internal

36. DETERMINING ATTRIBUTION consistency

how has this person acted previously in similar situations

high - internal low - external

37. Dismissive Attachment

low anxiety & high avoidance

relationship outcome:

- self-reliant

- relationships as unimportant

- casual rather then serious

CONFLICT: exit

38. distinctiveness

how does this individual act across social situation/does this action stand out against the norm

high: external low: internal

39. emotion

fundamental feeling states emotions share certain common characteristics

40. emotional contagion

emotions are contagious

41. emotional intelligence

the ability to accurately interpret yours and others emotions and use this information to manage emotions, communicate them competently, and solve relationship problems

42. emotional reaction process

- emotional stimulus

- appraisal of the stimulus

- experience the emotion

- behavioral response/action

->>> EXAMPLE

- stimulus - game time changed

- appraise - bad, inconvenient change of plans (goal is inhibited)

- emotion - angry

- behavioral response - complain

43. example of selfawareness

your best friend texts you that she failed an important exam. You feel bad for her, so you text her a comforting response. this leads to you thinking "I'm a good friend"

44. example of social comparison

when we compare favorably when measured against respected others, we think well of ourselves. when we don't compare favorably, we think less of ourselves

45. examples of self-concept

beliefs are convictions that certain things are true - "I'm an excellent student" attitudes are evaluative appraisals - "I'm happy with my appearance" values represent enduring principles that guide your interpersonal actions - "I think it's wrong to"

46. external attributions

"my partner is probably too busy to respond

47. family & self

caregivers play crucial role, providing us with ready-made set of beliefs, attitudes and values from which we construct out fledgling selves

  1. fearful attachment high anxiety & high avoidance

relationship outcomes: - stay away from relationships

-chronic distrust

- prefer dependent partners

CONFLICT: exit

49. feelings

specific things that occurs, short-lived & don't have physiological arousal

50. fundamental attribution error

the tendency to attribute others' behaviors solely to internal causes (the kind of person they are) rather than to social or environmental forces affecting them example - parents attributing teens' communication to "lack of responsibility"

51. gender

perceive communication as gendered; reality is men & women communicate very similarly

52. gender & self

the composite of social, psychological, and cultural attributes that characterize us as male or female

53. gestalts

general impressions of people, either positive or negative

54. halo effect

overarching positive view of someone so you think everything else they do is positive

55. horn effect

a person can never do anything right

56. how are emotions displayed?

conveyed through a host of nonverbal cues: kinesics cues - bodily cues affect displays

57. I-It

talk to people as if they were "it" (non-interpersonal)

58. ineffective conflict communication patterns

complaint & demand

59. ingrouper

people who belong to your culture

60. interactive communication model

Backchannel cue... "yeah" "hmm", feedback provided while your talking without interrupting

Field of experience: prior knowledge, where you come from (professor to professor, student to student)

EX: an interview, tutoring session, therapy

61. internal attributions

"my partner doesn't care about me"

62. interpersonal communication

A dynamic form of communication between two (or more) people in which the messages exchanged significantly influence their thoughts,emotions, behaviors, and relationships

63. interpersonal communication competence

consistently communicating in an appropriate, effective, and ethical manner

64. interpersonal process model of intimacy

the closeness we feel towards others in our relationships is created through two things: self-disclosure & responsiveness of listeners to disclosure

65. interpreting

assigning meaning to the information that you have already organized

66. IPC Requires

motivation knowledge

skill

67. IPC requires

KNOWLEDGE

how do I go about having this discussion

  1. IPC requires MOTIVATION how to be motivated to engage people

69. IPC requires SKILL

performance on the behavior

70. I-thou

engage people as people with thoughts and emotions

71. I-thou/I-it Conveys 2 Meanings:

Content & Relationship

content - what do your words mean relationship - inferred meaning, interpretation

- can be intentional or unintentional

- is irreversible (how you say it)

72. Johari Window

model of relational self; types of info: private, public

73. Linear Communication Model

Info flows in one direction

Message, channel, sender

Noise- psychological noise, physiological noise increases when stressed

EX: ELC emails, lecture class, speech, texting

74. looking-glass self

I am not who I think I am, I am not who you think I am, I AM WHO YOU THINK I AM

-- I am too short because I think that you think that I am too short

75. mindfulness

paying close attention to detail

76. mood

longer period of time & low intensity

77. norms that guide management of feelings for creating a socially desirable & appropriate emotional display

norms that guide management of feelings for creating a socially desirable & appropriate emotional display:

1. 4 emotional display rules:

- simulation

- intensification

- miniaturization

- inhibition

78. organizing

once you've selected something as the focus of your attention, you take that information and structure it into a coherent pattern in your mind

example - imagine that a cousin is telling you about a recent visit to a hometown. As she shares her story, you select certain bits of her narrative on which to focus your attention, based on salience, such as a mutual friend she saw during her visit or a fav hangout she went to. you then organize your own representation of her story in your head

79. outgrouper

people who don't belong to your culture

80. perception process

selecting, organizing, interpreting

81. perception process selecting

focusing attention on certain sights, sounds, tastes, touches or smells in the environment

82. physiological arousal

your heart beating fast when you're nervous

83. preoccupied attachment

high anxiety & low avoidance

relationship outcomes: constant worry, demand attention & reassurance, difficult for partners over time

CONFLICT: extreme responses

84. primary vs. non primary

primary: joy, disgust, anger, sadness non-primary: jealousy (anger+fear+sad)

  1. Principle of Emotional identifying, labeling, and articulating one's own emotions Intelligence: Principle 1 -

emotional awareness decoding the emotional expressions of others

understanding people experience multiple emotions at the same time

86. Principle of Emotional Intelligence: Principle 2

Emotional Perspective Taking

empathy - both recognize and understand what a person is feeling

empathic accuracy (can be protective mechanism) - correct or accurate understanding of how another person is feeling and why minimize conflict, maximize resolution

87. Principle of Emotional Intelligence: Principle 3

Constructive Management

reappraisal: strategy to change the way you think about a situation to decrease emotional experience - occurs early in the emotion generation process, before emotional response - think about emotional situation in non-emotional terms - I thinks vs. I feel suppression: strategy to change the way you REAPPRAISE DONT SUPPRESS

venting stimulus -> appraisal -> emotion -> response reappraisal occurs between appraisal and emotion suppression and venting occur before response

88. Principle of Emotional Intelligence: Principle 4 strategic expression

capacity for harnessing emotion for positive communication and relationship management

89. Principles of Emotional Intelligence

1) Emotional Awareness

2) Emotional Perspective Taking

3) Constructive Management

4) Strategic Expression

90. principles of interpersonal communication

emotional support, contribute to individual health

91. punctuation

structuring the info you've selected into a chronological sequence that matches how you experienced the order of events

example: think about how you punctuate sequence of events with a housemate - you hear a noise, open your eyes, see your housemate in your room, than hear her yelling at you

92. salience

the degree to which we are attracted to aspects of communication

communication is salient if the communicator behaves in a visually and audibly stimulating fashion -

>>> EXAMPLE: a housemate yelling and energetically gesturing is more salient than quiet

communication becomes salient if our goals or expectations lead us to view it as significant ->>>> even a housemate's spoken phone announcement will command our attention if we are anticipating an important call

communication that deviates from our expectations is salient ->>>>> example - an unexpected verbal attack will always be more salient than an expected one

  1. schemata mental structures that contain information defining the characteristics of various concepts, as well as how those characteristics are related to one another

EX - suppose you're interviewing for a job with a manager who has been at the company for 18 years. You'll likely interpret everything she says in the light of your knowledge about "long-term employees." This knowledge includes your assumption that "company veterans generally know insider information." So when your interviewer talks in glowing terms about the company's future, you'll likely interpret her comments as credible. Now imagine that you receive the same info from someone who has been at the company a few weeks. Based on your perception of him as "new employee" and on the information you have in your "new employee" schema, you may interpret his message as naïve speculation rather than expert commentary, even if his statements are accurate

94. secure attachment

low anxiety & low avoidance

relationship outcomes:

- warm, supportive

- high self-esteem

- confident communications

CONFLICT: work toward resolution of difficulties

95. selective perception

deciding to pay attention to the stimuli of importance to us while dismissing other stimuli

96. selfawareness

the ability to step outside yourself and view yourself as a unique person distinct from your surrounding environment and reflect on your thoughts feelings, and behaviors

97. selfconcept

overall perception of WHO YOU ARE relatively fixed set of perceptions we had about ourselves based on beliefs, attitudes, and values fixed but flexible emerges from interactions with others

98. selfconcept

clarity

the degree to which you have defined consistent and enduring one's sense of self example - struggling with your identity, remaining uncertain about who you really are

99. selfdisclosure

- personal information made public

- primary way to build relationships with people- intentional - choose:

-> when to disclose

-> how much to disclose

100. self-

discrepancy

the difference of how people see us vs. how we see us ideal self - "stop procrastinating" ought self - other people's version of you they wish

THE CLOSER THESE TWO MACTH, HIGHER SELF_ESTEEM

101. self-esteem

overall evaluation of ourselves - positive or negative

  1. self-fulfilling tell yourself the positive outcome, not the negative one prophesies for example - you may see yourself as professionally capable and highly skilled at communicating, which leads you to predict the interview success

103. self-reflection

to engage in critical self-reflection and ask questions like "what am I thinking and feeling?" "why am I thinking and feeling this way?" the ultimate goal of critical self-reflection is HOW CAN I IMPROVE

104. self-serving bias

our actions that result in noteworthy success, either personal or professional, we typically take credit for the success by making an internal attribution

example - you've persuaded a friend to lend you her car for the weekend. In this case, you'll probably attribute this success to your charm and persuasive skills rather than to luck or your friends generosity

105. social comparison

observing and assigning meaning to others' behavior then comparing your own

106. social penetration theory

revealing yourself to others is like peeling back layers of an onion (((like Shrek)))

107. some principles are counterintuitive

- attributions of blame & responsibility following extra-dyadic relationships (cheating)

- first in, last out - 0 men fall in love first and women are the first out

- effects of sense of humor on relationship satisfaction

--> people with average sense of humor are better for relationships because they can be serious if need be

108. sources of the self

gender & self, family and self

109. stereotyping

when we stereotype people, we replace subtle complexities that make people unique with subtle blanket statements about their character and worth solely based on their social group affiliation

110. subjective experiences

2 people, same situation, but different feelings example - football game cheering for different teams

111. thought interruption

emotions overriding your ability to think about other things

112. transactional communication model

Considers communication to be multidimensional

Senders are now collaborators

Jointly create a convo meaning, complicated

EX: talking to close friend, dinner with family

113. Uncertainty Reduction Theory

a theory suggesting that people are motivated to reduce their uncertainty about others

114. valence experiences

positive or negative emotions positive - happy, ecstatic, joyful, surprise negative - sad, angry, fearful

115. ways to reduce uncertainty: active

talk to other people about the person

116. ways to reduce uncertainty: interactive

talk to the person face-to-face

117. ways to reduce uncertainty: passive

seeing how someone reacts in their natural habitat

  1. ways to reduce uncertainty: proactive doing things before the interaction; seek to decrease uncertainty before the interaction

119. ways to reduce uncertainty: retroactive

effort to make sense of an interaction after it occurs

120. What are the motives for IPC?

1. Goal Achievement

2. Self-Presentation (show you're happy)

3. Instrumental (trying to achieve a "tangible thing")

4. Relationship (establish, maintain, or end a relationship)