Four metaparadigms of nursing

Nursing Metaparadigm Sample Study Notes

The metaparadigm in nursing refers to a set of four interconnected and fundamental concepts that form the basis of nursing theory and practice. These concepts provide a framework for understanding and discussing nursing phenomena, guiding the development of nursing theories and models. The four components of the nursing metaparadigm are:

  1. Person or Patient: This refers to the individual, family, community, or group receiving nursing care. It emphasizes the holistic approach to patient care, considering not just the physical aspects but also the psychological, emotional, social, and spiritual dimensions of the person.
  2. Health: Health is the state of well-being that is unique to each individual. It is not merely the absence of disease, but a dynamic balance between physical, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects. Nurses work to promote and maintain health, prevent illness, and facilitate healing.
  3. Environment: The environment encompasses all external factors that influence the person's health and well-being. It includes physical, social, cultural, economic, and political factors. Nurses consider how these factors impact a person's health and adjust care accordingly.
  4. Nursing: Nursing is the central concept in the metaparadigm. It involves the actions, skills, and knowledge that nurses apply to promote health, prevent illness, and provide care to individuals, families, and communities. Nursing is both a science and an art, encompassing evidence-based practices as well as the humanistic and compassionate aspects of care.

The nursing metaparadigm provides a conceptual foundation for the development of nursing theories and models, guiding research, education, and practice. It's a way to organize and articulate the essential components of nursing and its role in healthcare. Different nursing theorists may interpret and emphasize these concepts differently, leading to a variety of nursing theories that build upon the metaparadigm.

Discover More Sample essays and Assignment Answers on MetaParadiagms of Nursing and related topics

The four metaparadigms of nursing include person, environment, health, and nursing. While all four are equally important in nursing practice, for this discussion, I will choose the one that I am most interested in, which is nursing. The fourth metaparadigm, nursing, refers to the nurse and how he/she will apply their knowledge and skills when caring for patients (Shelly & Miller, 2006, p. 53). Nurses are the backbone of healthcare. It is essential to apply all four metaparadigms to the nursing process when caring for patients in order to address the patient as a whole. This nurse works at an inpatient hospice unit and using all four metaparadigms is crucial in patient care but you also need the nursing knowledge backed by the science of caring for some of the toughest yet most beautiful, rewarding moments at the end of life and in my profession.

According to Pamela Reed, “nursing is a way of doing that creates good actions that facilitate well-being” (Cody, 2013, p.79). The metaparadigm of nursing is displayed through Orem's Theory of Self-Care. Patients are the center of self-care, but when it comes to diseases and therapies, nurses are essential to the progression of healing (Branch, Deak, Hiner, & Holzwart, n.d.). Nurses are there to help their patients heal and instruct them on what to do in the healing process. The nursing metaparadigm concept is the art and science of nursing. It’s simply what nurses do. It involves all of the special skills that an individual acquires to become a nurse including medical knowledge, technical skills, and hands-on nursing care. While applying all of these skills, nurses also show compassion for their patients (Masters, 2015).

Nursing is an academic discipline and a practice profession. Nursing science is a body of knowledge arrived at through theory development, research, and logical analysis. Nursing and the other supporting metaparadigms are essential to guide advance nursing practice autonomously and empower our patients through caring partnerships and transactions (Cody, 2013). Neuman defines nursing as “action which assist individuals, families and groups to maintain a maximum level of wellness, and the primary aim is stability of the patient/client system, through nursing interventions to reduce stressors’’ (Nabor & Malinis, 2012). Neuman states that, because the nurse’s perception will influence the care given, then not only must the patient/client’s perception be assessed, but so must those of the caregiver (nurse) (Nabor & Malinis, 2012). Nursing practice is the creative use of this knowledge in human care. Nurses use critical thinking and clinical judgment to provide evidence-based care to individuals, families and communities to achieve an optimal level of client wellness in diverse situations (Branch, Deak, Hiner, & Holzwart, n.d.). In order to be a complete nurse, one must attend to all aspects of the patient’s well-being and needs. Once this is done, a nurse will be providing the best care possible for the patient.


Branch, C., Deak, H., Hiner, C., & Holzwart, T. (n.d.). Four Nursing Metaparadigms. Nursing, pp. 123-132.

Cody, W. K. (2013). Philosophical and theoretical perspectives for advanced nursing practice (5th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Masters, K. (2015). Nursing theories: A framework for professional practice (2nd ed.) Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Nabor, A., & Malinis, M. (2012, May). The Neuman System Model or Health Care System Model. Retrieved from Nurses Guild- Theories in nursing:

Shelly, J. A., & Miller, A. B. (2006). Called to care: A Christian worldview for nursing (2nd ed.)