English Assignment Question with Answer

Project 1

1)What is a noun class?

A noun class is a class that comes in two forms; inflectional and derivational, in Kujamaat Jóola, these can be plural, mass or collective in C(v) structure. There are 19 classes of nouns. Class a- (sg.) Class 2 ku- (pl.)

2)What is a bound root?

A bound root is a root that can not occur at the separate word away from the morphemes. In fact, they could never occur alone as whole words.

3)What is a noun-class prefix?

A noun class is a prefix that represents a class of nouns, for example, in Kujamaat Jóola, the Noun class prefixes for Class 15 happens to be the prefix ma - as in majilayεt ‘yellow’. This prefix ma- is seen through-out the class.

4)What is a gender?

A gender is a category in the noun class system which is made up of forms which have agreement which relates to the language for example, articles, and verbs. In Kujamaat Jóola, we are working mostly on nouns; therefore, the categories of nouns such as classes like 1 & 2 consist of the Class 1 prefix a - (singular), and Class 2 the prefix ku - (plural)

5)What is meant by semantic core of a gender?

Semantic core of a gender means a meaning class of a gender of nouns. The semantic core can have multiple variations of nouns or words, for example in Kujamaat Jóola, Gender ⅚ consist of “borrowings, and most words referring to periods of time or to events involving large crowds” (Wiley- Blackwell 61).

Classes and Gender Tables Below

6) Gender ½

Consists of Class 1 and 2, in left to right order, ‘singular noun’, gloss, ‘plural noun’. Class agreements. Occur on verb agreement, adjectives, and verbs.

a.)

Class 1

Class 2

Singular (a-)

Gloss

Plural (ku - )

Gloss

/a-ti/

‘same- sex sibling’

/ku-ti/

‘same- sex siblings’

/a-dokoto:ra/

‘doctor’( <French)

/ku-dokoto:ra/

‘doctors’

/a-sɛf/

‘chief’ < (French)

/ku-sɛf/

‘chief’

/a-jɔla/

‘Jola person’

/ku-jɔla/

‘Jola person’

If a vowel is tense in the root then the allomorphs alternate between tense and lax. Here, the semantic core is a called a personal gender which means the semantic core is full of humans. All of the above words appear in Gender ½ because they are humans. /a-sɛf/ is borrowed word, so therefore, the semantics overrides the fact that it is a borrowed word.

Allomorphs:

Gender ¾

Consists of Class 3 & 4, in right to left order, nouns that have human referents.

Class 3

Class 4

Singular (e-)

Gloss

Plural (si -)

Gloss

/e-ɲaru/

‘monkey’

/si-ɲaru/

‘monkeys’

/e-bo:l/

‘bowl’ (< French)

/si-bo:l/

‘bowls’

/e-mo:n/

‘trunk of the body’

/si-mo:n/

‘trunks of the body’

Here, the semantic core is deemed as a personal gender, with the prefix e - and the plural si- are mainly concrete objects that are not trees. All of the above words appear in Gender ¾ because they are concrete objects that exclude fruits, containers, and persons are assigned to this pair.

Allomorphs:

In Gender ⅚

Classes 5 & 6 hold augmentative plurals of nouns, referring to periods of

time or to events involving large crowds, augmentatives or augmentative plurals of other nouns.

Class 5

Class 6

Singular (fu-)

Gloss

Plural (ku- )

Gloss

/fu-mo:n/

‘large tree trunk’

/ku-mo:n/

‘large tree trunks’

/fu-nə:nə/

‘banana’< French

/ku-ne:ne/

‘bananas’

/fu-joj/

‘Assembly of people’

/‘ku-joj’/

‘assemblies of people’

/fu-le:muna/

‘lemon’ < Portuguese

/ku-le:muna/

‘lemons’

Here, the semantic core appears to be borrowed fruit terms like ‘lemon’ and ‘bananas.’

Allomorphs:

In Gender ⅞

Classes 7 & 8

Class 7

Class 8

Singular (ka-)

Gloss

Plural (u- )

Gloss

/ka -ɲ/

‘Item of clothing’

/w-aɲ/

‘items of clothes’

/ka - ɲen/

‘arm and hand’

/u-ɲen/

‘arms and hands’

/ka-kamun/

‘leg and foot’

/u-nen/

‘legs and feet’

/ka-l/

‘stream’

/w-al/

‘stream’

Here, given the data set there appears to be two semantic cores which classifies body parts

contains referring to bones, bony, objects and limbs of the body. Words for containers, along with borrowings; however, the exception is the word frog.

indicated in class two.

Allomorphs:

In Gender 8/9

Classes 8 & 9 It is also notable that words for trees and objects that are hollowed

out from tree trunks go into 8 & 9.

Class 8

Class 9

Singular (bu-)

Gloss

Plural (u- )

Gloss

/bu-birik/

‘acacia tree’

/u-nen/

‘Legs and feet’

/bu-manga/

‘mango tree’

/u-manga/

‘mango trees’

/bu-:l/

‘face’

/w-u:l/

‘faces’

/bu-siken/

‘wooden mortar for crushing grain’

/u-siken/

‘mortars’

/u-kamun/

‘Arms and hands’

Allomorphs:

Class 10

Class 11

Singular (ji - )

Gloss

Plural (mu- )

Gloss

/ji-sua/

‘Small bird’

/mu-sua/

‘Small birds’

/j-u:l/

‘A kind of palm tree’

/mu-:l/

“A kind of palm trees’

/ji-liba/

‘Small knife’

/mu-rink/

‘Small knives’

/ji-rink/

‘piece’

/mu-sua/

‘pieces’

Here, the semantic core is small animals, and diminutives with singular and plural prefixes.

Allomorphs:

7 )

/basua/ ‘ small group of birds’

Prefix: ba -

The aforementioned prefix is a diminutive collective, which prefaces a noun stem in Class

13. In class 13, words like bakikit ‘pit seed’ appear which when affixed means ‘small bunch of seeds.” For example, “assigning a noun stem from any class to class 13”

(Blackwell 63).

/ɛbaj/ ‘to have’

Prefix: ɛ-

The class prefix is ɛ- and baj is monosyllabic. which puts in singular class 3;

/kakontoN/ ‘to eat lunch’

Prefix: ka -

The class prefix is ka - has more than one syllable; therefore, it takes the class prefix 7.

8.)

  1. The Jola word for banana tree is in Class 5 /-nə:nə/ and move it to the Gender 9/8 with prefixes bu- (sg) and u- (pl.).
  2. The word for a bunch of bananas in Jola can be assumed to bebu-/nə:nə/
  3. The Jola word /akamba:ni/ is prefixed with the Class 1 prefix a - , which means that it is in Gender ½ Class 1; therefore, to become plural, it can be assigned to Class 2 and Take the prefix ku- as in /ku-kamba:ni/.
  4. augmentatives: /ɛsua/ ‘bird’ and /sisua/ ‘birds’. By removing the Class 3 prefix ɛ - (sg.) and Class 4 si - (pl.), it is notable that the stem for bird. Since Classes 5 & 6 have a derivational role, one can create augmentative plurals.
  5. Class 5 fu- (sg.) Class 6 ku- (pl.)

    fu-sua ‘big bird’ ku-sua ‘big birds’

  6. augmentatives: /fufimbar/ ‘tomato’ and /kufimbar/ ‘tomatoes’. By taking the fufimbar from class 5 fu- which would mean large tomato and assigning it to class 12 which holds the prefix ɲi
  7. fimbar - ‘tomato’ (stem)

    bu-fimbar - ‘fimbar’

    ɲi-fimbar - ‘’

  8. diminutives: /fufimbar/ ‘tomato’ and /kufimbar/ ‘tomatoes’
  9. fimbar - ‘tomato’ (stem)

    (Class 10) (Class 11)

    ji-fimbar mu-fimbar

  10. /burek/
  11. Gender :⅚: /burek/ can also be placed in the aforementioned gender because it can cover a period of time.

    Gender ⅞ :/burek/ assuming that burek has more than one syllable, the verb can take the verb class

    7 ka - marker which means that it can become /ka-burek/.

    Gender ¾: Has many loan words/ borrowings and it happens to be the most semantically diverse of the categories because it is the default noun class. Therefore, it is perfectly reasonable

    To assume that /burek/ could go there.

  12. The indigenous word /-bəkən/ for pail should go in the gender ⅞ because it includes the words for containers and various borrowings; for example, in Class 7 there is an indigenous word sinsiɲ which means ‘type of basket’.