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# The voltage across the copper and the current

138 Chapter Eight

temperature protection. A fail-safe mechanism may also be incorporated for system shutdown, when processing volatile or corrosive materials.

2. The transition of material between solid, liquid, and gaseous states or phase changes in materials when heat is supplied

3. The mechanism and equations of heat energy transfer and the effects of heat on the physical properties of materials

8.1 Convert the following temperatures to Fahrenheit: 115°C, 456 K, and 423°R.

8.2 Convert the following temperatures to Rankine: −13°C, 645 K, and −123°F.

8.7 A 4.3-lb copper block is heated by passing a direct current through it. If the voltage across the copper is 50 V and the current is 13.5 A, what will be the increase in the temperature of the copper after 17 min? Assume there is no heat loss.

Temperature and Heat 139

What is the change in length of a 5-m tin rod if the temperature changes from 11 to 8.14
245°C?

8.15 The length of a 115-ft metal column changes its length to 115 ft 2.5 in when the temperature goes from −40 to 116°F. What is the coefficient of expansion of the metal? 8.16 A glass block measures 1.3 ft ⋅ 2.7 ft ⋅ 5.4 ft at 71°F. How much will the volume increase if the block is heated to 563°F?

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