Difference in perception and expectations of Apple and Samsung customers
Apple and Samsung are two high tech companies offering advance featured products to their customers across the world. Both Apple and Samsung are offering same category of products. Emergence of technology brings these companies into market and emergence of innovation brings smartness in these companies. Innovation accelerates success of Apple and Samsung because both companies accept and adapt change vigorously. Samsung as a brand was originated from Seoul, South Korea. While Apple as a tech company was originated from the United States. In this research work the perception and expectations of customers of Apple and Samsung will be evaluated. Although these both are tech companies but still perceptions and expectations of customers are different from both of these companies. Both brands grows from bad times as researches shows that Samsung's growth in the US was very slow in the previous decade (Zhang et al. 2016). Growth of companies has started with the spread of awareness about tech devices. Samsung's growth is noted adequate in Asia and Europe markets. Predictions about the growth of companies are high in coming future.
On the other side, Apple since its evolution is perceived as an excellent brand by its users. Although the history of Apple products and sales is dark more than other brands but it emerged as the top smartphone brand in all countries where the company is offering its products. Apple during 2011, makes higher sales in the United States and made 23.8% increment in the same year. Overtime competition between countries grows faster because of competing in the same market targeting same customers but in two different ways. This research paper will analyze what makes them unique from each other and how they are being marketed and also the functions they have. Research will also explore marketing strategies of both companies and evaluate which approach is effective than the other (Liang and Ramkumar 2018). The time limit for research work will need six months, so as three months will be for data collection, two months for analyzing the collected data and one month to conclude the research.
Samsung and Apple have almost same market shares and the growth ratio is also similar but what is different in these marketing strategies that makes a difference in perception and expectations of these strategies. Apple Inc. is a US based company a cutting edge of technology serve its innovative products and services across the world. The company – Apple was founded in 1976 and launch its first product in June 29, 2007. Apple launches innovation and updated technology into the market. Communication through smartphones is a contribution of Apple Inc. into the industry. The product named Apple II was marked as the first computer that had marked the mass-market success of the company. Steve Jobs introduced iPod in 200, iPad in 2010 and iPhone in 2007, when the company was slowly developing. During the fiscal year 2014, Apple makes $40 billion profit from net sales of their products. Today Apple is known for its fascinating design and this is what makes perceptions different (Lee, 2015). There are different stories behind the design and bitted logo of Apple that marks a difference between expectations of Apple customers that differentiate them from Samsung's customers and their expectations.
Samsung was a trading company at the inception, and then the company diversified the operation in too many different sections. Samsung increasingly globalized its business from the 1990s, and the subsidiary division was found as Samsung electronics. As per the market share, Samsung's position was fourth globally. Samsung is known for the high scale production of industry and consumer electronic products. The history of Samsung as grocery trading retailer didn't predict this success for the company it is making today. Meeting with demands and preferences of their customers Samsung is launching innovative designs of all their electronics. But still there are differences in their marketing strategies and help customers to decide what brand they want for them. The study is aimed to differentiate the marketing strategies of these two brands by customer perception and expectation. This research paper will also analyze how different designs and software help customers to satisfy their needs and what is the value of each brand for them.
Even after reveling markets of innovative products both Apple and Samsung are putting their constant efforts to be more valued and to make choices right. The first product by Samsung was a black and white television and then over time home electronics were began to expand. Since 2006 Samsung ranked at the top of best-selling smartphones across the world. Galaxy series of company has started in 2010 and the company expands their services to tablets in the form of Galaxy tabs (Bondarenko, 2018). On the other side, Apple is making huge sales by their iPhones. Researches shows that more than half of Apple's revenue and sales comes from iPhone. iPads and Mac books are also bringing sales but less then iPhone of the company.
Samsung and Apple makes innovative growth significantly into number of markets and going beyond electronics and mobile devices. Both companies has passed through numerous highs and lows that marked recent successes for companies. Compoarativly Apple makes more sales then Samsung. Accoridng to recent reports Apple will earn additional revenue pf $14 billion through the sell of 130 million iPhone X in coming years. While Samsung is expected to make only $10 billion through sales of their Galaxy S8 devices during same time period as of Apple (Wadhwa, 2015). Comparative global smartphone shipments the company topped in sales. There are different sources that differently state revenue information for Apple and Samsung. There are areas where perceptions for iPhone are positive and topped then Samsung and vice versa.
Accoridng to a source (Rahul, 2019) Samsung crosses Apple and ranked as a number 1 spot and after a year there were no changes in the rank accept in the United States. Then reports from Consumer Intelligence Research Partners CRIP states that Apple's first quarter made good during this year and cross spots of Samsung (Rahul, 2019). Apple is known to have a more sleek design to its devices and even more user-friendly IOS software, Samsung is known for its large devices and complex Android devices. As of Q1 of 2019, Apple has 1.4 Billion active devices around the world, and 900 million of those are iPhones. As these two companies are the leaders in the technology industry, I want to find out what makes their customers choose one from the other (Baek and Kim 2018).
This research paper is aimed to highlight different perceptions and expectations of customers of Apple and Samsung. Apple is known for its hilarious design and attractive appearance while Samsung is known for its durable software and fast devices. iPhone holds 36% of market shares comparative to 39% share in the market. iPhone is most famous product into the US market and its perception is different in the United States then the rest of the world (Rahul, 2019). A recent report of the same year states that Apple sells 72.9 million iphones in Q4 and beats Samsung that sells only 72 million Galaxy mobiles. This report shows that Apple first time in two years beats Samsung in shipment challenge. This year Apple beats Samsung by having more shares of 70.7 million but Samsung has only 68.8 million (Browne, 2020).
These reports and recent trends for both Apple and Samsung shows that both companies are revelling their products and services, and trying tirlessly to meet with customer's expectations. But still there are several factors that affect customer perceptions and expectations. One of the most common perception of people across the world have about Apple is that it is an expensive smartphone brand. Although prices of Samsung products are also high but at since the evolution of products staring price were different. iPhone is perceived as expensive because of its appearnce and over time the look changed a lot. Meeting with expectatiosn of people iPhone polishes its design every year and bring more attarctive and impressive models. While Samsung is famous and perceived as a durable smartphone brand and meeting with expectations of people Samsung brings changes in the durability of its battery life to make it more effective.
The competition between these two brands is so high that it will be hard to differentiate between them, and the aim will be to find out the strategical difference in marketing of Apple and Samsung. The difference we see in development and growth of these two businesses is because of marjeting strategies they use. Like products marketing strategies of Apple are more intense, appealing and engaging then of Samsung. And this is the reason behind the astounding success of the company. There are number of strategies that Apple is using to market their products and they are lucky enough because everything they putt succeeds. One strategy is that Apple do not spend on advertisements. One comment from a Apple is; "We didn't need to," Schiller Said. He read from several rave reviews of the iPhone and iPad, explaining that such stories doing a better job then advertising to build buzz." (Patel, 2020) This statement shows Apple is gaining success by giving value to their customers and their reviews. They read reviews on company products and use to bring changes and innovation in the market.
The research question is "The difference in perception and expectations of Apple and Samsung customers" and I will use mixed research approach to bring more satisfactory and justified results that there is a difference between perceptions and expectations of customers of Apple and Samsung that is marked because of marketing strategies of both companies. The research approach will include qualitative, quantitative studies along with the survey and data analysis. Quakitative approach is used to analyze trends and characteristics that makes both companies different from each other. Qualitative research will be conducted through underlying concepts and existing studies on Apple and Samsung. Available literature and recent news about products of companies will help me to qualitatively differentiate mareking strategies of Apple and Samsung. The existing strategies about pricing, innovations, and holding the market is already discussed in the previous section, so the approach here will be to find out the current challenges.
Emergence of technology and innovation brings unpredictable customer preferences. And as per company's products both Apple and Samsung are taking instant shifts. Every year consumers want to change their smartphones and they look forwards to have more innovative and engaging gadegts. Thus to meet with these customer expectations, Apple comes up with unique design and Samsung comes up with durable and better products havign long-lasting battery life. Perception and expectatiosn of Apple and Samsung products also changes with time. Nielsen's researches states that customer of Apple trust on them because of marketing techniques they use. Findings of his research states that 92% people believe on what they hear from their friends about features of iPhone and 70% buyers of iPhone belive on opinions of people that use the product.
Quantitative study will be used to explore pricing, sales, countrywise consumption and its impacts on sales of both brands. Primarily prices of Apple products are higher then Samsung and these high price strategy is becoming a challenge for the company too. The last year 2019, was proved as bad year for Apple sales mainly in terms of sales of iPad that remains flaitened throughout the year. The company also faces challenges from investors who feels agitated during the last year. Researches states that recent updates in iPhone are not remarkable in consumer point of view and people were purchasing that iPhone not to enjoy new features but for the upgrade of previous model. Investor's were hypered by hearing the news that Apple is no more making extra sales and revenue and the unit sales are going bad they estimate that predictions are not good for future. Things goes complicated during 2019, when investors understand that Apple is no more a cash cow (Kingsley-Hughes, 2018). Through quantitative analysis of sales and pricing of Apple, this research paper will reveal how all these conditions will impact customer's expectations and perceptions.
Like the iPhone, Samsung is also facing strategic challenges that hit sales of the company in the previous year. Unlike Apple, Samsung is not facing pricing issues, but there are problems in the software of products. The company heading towards success falls short during 2019. The company lost 14.87 trillion in the last year. A statement from the company during crisis times is as follows; "The company is facing challenges from uncertainties not only in business areas but also from changes in the global macroeconomic environment." (BBC, 2019) Quantitative analysis of unit sales of Apple and Samsung will reveal where the future purchases are heading.
Survey questions will be used to access customer preferneces directly and what they feel about smartphones brands under study. Survey questions will be prepared that will let respondents share their views about the smartphone they are using. The survey and data analysis will help to understand why certain people go for Samsung and Apple, respectively. The survey will be designed and conducted online to understand the global perceptions of people about Apple and Samsung. The survey will include the interviews through social media, one and one interview, and a study on customer satisfaction results found in the websites and customer grievance portals. The research method will include interviews that will carry open-end questions. The observation will be carried out on every section of the survey and also in the response of the advertisements of these two brands. The marketing difference will be sought out through the observation. After collection of respondent's answers, data will be analyzed to arrange a conclusion for the research paper. Different factors like the price of the product, economic factors, functional factors, features and innovation and standard issues will be portrayed into the survey to explore what factors mark a difference in perception and expectations of customers of both Apple and Samsung.
To find out the difference in perception and expectations of Apple and Samsung customers, the qualitative and quantitative analysis method will be most apt. The mixed approach of sampling will back the diversification of the opinion. Qualitative and quantitative methods of research are effective to explore the research question. Alone any approach could not satisfy the needs of the research question because there is statistical data that needs to be quantitatively analyzed. The data collection method will be done through surveys, interviews, and study on focus groups. The assessment of the found data will be carried out through a sampling approach and setting the criteria, ethical considerations, validity, and reliability. The research plan will be included as per the requirement, and timeliness will be set. The team size and duties will be cleared through the proper charting and communication (Wairimu and Sun, 2018).
After collection of data further, the research approach will proceed towards sampling. The sampling approach will be incorporated after gathering the data. The collected data will be segregated by the income of the participants, age group, exposure to the digitization, acceptance of the changes. Sample population will be people above age 14 years. Today, adults have more understanding about features of a smartphone their parents. The expectations will be the mainframe of the sampling, and the recommendations will be segmented to understand the relationship between acceptance of the brand and recommendation.
Different criteria will be used to measure responses of respondents and to generalize these concepts. For example, exposure to the internet and other media will be another important criterion. The income of the participants will clarify the affordability of Apple and Samsung, and the user experience will clarify why they are choosing Apple or Samsung. The exposure to the digitization will explain the impact of the brands in the market. The age group will suggest the customer reliance and brand recall process, whether they are welcoming the innovation or not. The exposure to the advertisement will be helpful in understanding the fact of marketing strategy and will help to compare their penetration and impact (Chyi and Lee 2018). The age group will suggest the customer reliance and brand recall process, whether they are welcoming the innovation or not. The exposure to the advertisement will be helpful in understanding the fact of marketing strategy and will help to compare their penetration and impact.
Apple and Samsung are two respected tech companies are providing their products and services. The research paper is intended to research about customer expectations and opinions about products of these brands. There were 30 respondents of 13-20 years old. Survey questions that were prepared by using online software shared through social media applications. Snapchat, Whatsapp, and IMO has been used to share the link of the questionnaire. All the respondents were online and were asked to complete the survey in a given time. After the completion of the survey, respondents notified the researcher and the researcher collects data through the given like. After the collection of data, the next step was to generalize. There were nine questions in the survey, and all were open-ended. These questions were intended to grab the perception and expectations of customers regarding Apple and Samsung products. There were questions about price, quality, affordability and loyalty of brand that help me as a researcher to understand brand approaches better. 30 respondents among them 18 were teen males and 12 females. 7 respondents were iPhone users, and others were Samsung users having different brands, but all iPhone users have an updated model. As researches (Lee, 2015) shows that iPhone makes its users stick to change their smartphone every year, not because they want changes in software, but they want to get rid of their old iPhone model. After collecting results, I had separated responses of Apple and Samsung users and respondents to make it clear that what makes a difference in user expectations. Answers of survey questions show that respondents provide answers after thoroughly reading queries, and it also shows their interest in the survey. All respondents come up with logically relevant solutions that help me to understand their perception and expectation from two brands. The average answer comes on four lines. The first question of the survey was how long you had been a customer of Apple or Samsung? 7 users of Apple states that since they had the first smartphone of their life. 10 Samsung users say that they are using the same brand since their first brand, 6 Samsung users state that Samsung was their third smartphone and 6 Samsung users state that they bought first Samsung smartphone this year. This question has been asked to analyze the addiction of both brands. iPhone users say that they have been using iPhone since their first mobile device and are used to change their smartphone every year in order to upgrade their design. Researches state that the addiction of iPhone or Apple brands is not because of Ios software but because of what it looks like. While Samsung user's responses show that Samsung is currently engaging people towards them.
The second survey question was which of the following products have purchased from Apple and Samsung before? The purpose of this question was to analyze whether people are intended to purchase smartphones, or they have to purchase other products from them. Only 3 iPhone users have purchase Macbook from Apple among 7. And 12 Samsung users state that they had purchases regarding home appliances among 23. Researches about Apple's products include only communication devices like iPod, MacBook, iPhone and tablet etc. But Samsung is offering home appliances as well, and because of the brand's affordability, durability and uniqueness, people are used to purchasing other products too. This research question shows that expectations of Samsung customers are high from the brand instead of Apple customers. Because of the narrow range of services, customers expectations are also concentrated on communication devices.
The third survey question was asked to measure the satisfaction of customers of Apple and Samsung. This question is one of the most critical issues that help me to gain an answer to the research question. Instead of simply come up with yes or no answer respondents states reasons for their satisfaction that was a plus point to understand the difference between these two brands deeply. There are 7 iPhone users in total, 4 respondents state that the design of the iPhone brand is incompatible, and this is what that help them to maintain their social status. 2 iPhone users say that they are inspired because of the brand's marketing strategy. While 1 iPhone user states that he can afford an iPhone; thus, he does not think for other options.
Figure 1: Customer Satisfaction Ratio
12 Samsung users report that they are compelled towards the design of the brand that they launch every year. 6 Samsung users report that the brand is affordable. 3 Samsung users say that the software of the smartphone is durable. 2 Samsung user indicates that the brand is effectively marketing its products.
Table 1: Reasons for Satisfaction of Apple vs. Samsung's Customers
The fourth survey question was which company is meeting with your expectations regarding the smartphone. This question was asked collectively without mentioning the name of the brand. As evident it is iPhone users states that Apple is meeting with their needs and Samsung users are satisfied with this brand they are using. Further explanations show that Apple is complying with its customer's expectations when it comes to design and Samsung being durable and affordable. iPhone users states that the company by going expensive day-to-day is breaking their customer lead. And this statement by one of their customers shows that the company is not meeting with its customer's needs. But Samsung customers are fully satisfied with the product and the company's services. Samsung users in one or the other way were satisfied like more customers are happy because of the durability and affordability of products and others are also admiring its design. According to the research question, this paper is intended to figure out the way both brands shape the expectations and perceptions of their customers. The purpose of this research was to differentiate between marketing strategies that play a role in shaping customers expectations.
The fifth survey question is asking about the quality of the products. Respondents of both brands were satisfied with the quality of the products. This survey question helps me to understand that both companies are using variety to shape their perception about brands. Researches of available literature or brand information show that people have a common perception that Apple's products cost high than any other smartphone brand. And Samsung's products are perceived as strong brands among customers. Thus expectations are shaped by using different factors. Samsung use quality and Apple use price to shape the image of the brand in the customer's mind. Researches also state that when someone says, iPhone people think the product is expensive while when someone says Samsung, the first thing that came into mind is durability and affordability. Thus these strategies help both brands to approach their customers in different ways.
The sixth survey question is, what do you think about the cost of products of Apple and Samsung? In this question, I found that respondents, instead of talking about the smartphone they are using also provide their views on the cost of iPhone products, that was not claiming the success of the company. 5 iPhone users were satisfied with the cost of products in terms of quality Apple is providing to its customers, while 2 iPhone users were spending on the brand just because they want to leave the old iPhone design. While 23 Samsung users were satisfied with the product costs. They said comparative to the quality and durability of these products costs of Samsung's product is appropriate.
Figure 2: Satisfaction on the basis of price among customers of both brands
Further three questions of the research survey were intended to ask user experiences and how often they will purchase a new product from their desired brands. Three iPhone users state that if the new iPhone would bring changes in design as well as the price of the product increases as of the previous one they will be less likely to go for a shift in the smartphone. While Samsung users and some remaining 4 users of the iPhone do not give any direct statements about their purchase plan. Future predictions (Haslam, 2020) about iPhone products and their new sales reveals that product prices will go up in the coming year as always throughout the history of brand. Thus according to shaped perceptions of public everyone knows that product prices will go up in the coming future, but survey results show that although iPhone users are addicted to change their smartphones every year because of compelling designs but budget is mandatory to adapt this change that will be hard to meet for numerous users this year.
The data and opinions collected from reliable sources (available brands information, literature and a limited survey that help me to evaluate qualitative as well quantitative elements of brands that shape perception and expectations of customers of Apple and Samsung) and methods are used for understanding and searching for the answer to the research questions. The collected information would not be used for any business purpose, and the information will be undisclosed to any third party. The data protection act will have adhered to all the research methods. The personal data is vulnerable in recent years so that the explanations will be added before any interview and survey. The time of the participants is also valuable, so no one will be pressured to answer.
The validation of the survey and the research method is crucial to achieving the credibility of the work. The proposed methods are used scientifically; in a sense, it follows all the steps of the scientific research method. The observations that are made during the analysis of collected data are objective, and the generalization from the collected data is biased less as to achieve integrity in the research work. The research is reliable because of factors of the use of authentic tools. The computers used and the sources of the information were all crucial and protected. The misinformation and biased facts will affect the result of the research work, so the cross-checking of the sources is carried out to eliminate any jeopardy.
Primary and secondary data analysis shows that both Samsung and Apple use different strategies to shape expectations and perception of their customers. Generalization of collected data through various sources states that Apple use the cost of their products to perceive it and its customers always expect to have a unique, innovative design. Thus perception and expectations of iPhone users are cost and design, respectively. On the other side, the durability and affordability of Samsung products is the perception and expectations of Samsung users, respectively. This research paper is intended to differentiate ways by which both Apple and Samsung shape perception and expectations of its customers. Thus focusing on this question research has been carried out by using a mixed approach and results are discussed above that shows both brands use different strategies and tricks to grab interests of their customers. This research also indicates that Samsung is among those successful brands who made success slowly while Apple is among those who come out at once and not gradually flipping down. Thus slow and gradual success always brings long-term success. Research results have been evaluated and generalized without any bias to understand research results better. This research indicates that marketing strategies companies are using have an influence on the sales and likes/dislikes of their customers. The way both companies market their products makes a difference. Although Apple is a world's most selling smartphone brand but still because of high-cost people are less likely to attract towards the brand. At the same time, recent researches (Bondarenko, 2018) states that Samsung is on the stake because of high quality and affordable products. Research also indicates that future terms and customer expectations are changing over time.
The research work is completed in six months, as stated at the start of the research paper. The focus of this research was to evaluate two well-known brands and marketing strategies that shape the expectations and perceptions of customers of Samsung and Apple. The purpose of the research paper has been achieved by using a practical approach to research and by considering ethical implications. But the research is not limited to the analysis of marketing strategies of both brands and strategies they are using to target customers. With the market point of view, Apple is more valuable and respected brand than Samsung, and because of its innovative and compelling design, the brand is attractive to everyone. But different factors restrict the purchase of the iPhone. The second most demanded and trusted brand is Samsung that is accepted and used by customers across the world. Researches also shows the difference between the marketing strategies of these two brands that marks a line of success.
Researches (INSIGHTS, 2020) states that expectations of Samsung users with the emergence of wireless technology are expanding and it is because the company always come with the adaptation of new technologies. Thus this statement shows that Samsung customers still have some positive expectations from the company. On the other hand, Apple thinks that customer expectations help the company to define its future products. That they use customer responses and preferences to develop their future products. Although Apple, since its first launch, brings much innovation in the smartphone industry. Still, past few years, there are no remarkable changes in the products of the company that affect the expectations of their customers. Some of the respondents of this survey for this research states that they wouldn't see any changes or improvement in the software of the iPhone, but they are used to upgrade their handset. This shows that Apple is failing to come up with the expectations of its customers (TRANSIFEX, 2019).
From the course, reading businesses compete successfully into the market when they come up with strong and established marketing strategy. And Apple's marketing strategy is more compelling and contemplating than any other brand into the market. Since the evolution of the company instead of targeting hearts or customers Apple target mind of its customers, who are unable to adjust with any other smartphone brand but Apple. As results of the survey's first question show that few respondents are using iPhone since they had their first smartphone. Thus it is difficult to provide a similar experience to iPhone users. Samsung is also same in the sense that users think that when they are getting quality and durability in affordable rates then why they go for expensive smart phone products. This research paper reveals that because of different marketing strategies and practices by both countries contribute to the changing expectations and perception of people. This research paper also highlights changing roles and perceptions and factors that are providing over time.
The study aimed to find out the brand perception of the customers and to study the difference in the marketing strategy of Apple and Samsung. The setting of the data collection area will be very crucial, and the identification of the focus group will carry colossal significance. The focus group for this research paper was those who have smartphones and have interaction with other tech devices of respective brands under study. This focus group was selected because as per the research question, they can better help us to understand different perceptions about Apple and Samsung. Thus results were considered and based on real-life experiences. The pattern of the customers believes, and values will add the knowledge of marketing application, and the challenges of marketing will be understood. This research evaluates where both brands are heading in future and what would be a few challenges that can come across the way. Different factors like cost, durability, reliability, design and marketing strategies are compared by using data charts to make it clear that there is a difference in expectations customers both companies has and perceptions.
The research takes six months as described and come up with real-life differences in the practices of both companies. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis, the implication of survey questions, this research paper grab expectations and perceptions of customers regarding their chosen brands. There were 30 respondents into survey questions among them 7 respondents were iPhone users while remaining 23 were Samsung users. This research paper is developed on the responses of that survey contained 9 questions and helped me as a researcher to dig deep into the topic to mark the research question as valid. This research between two brands is analyzed and generalized without any bias or discrimination of users or brands, but both are considered as valuable brands. Research paper, while analyzing underlying brands information, states that both brands, in one way and the other competing for each other. Apple that is one of the successful tech company, need to bring some changes into their current practices to be successful.
Below are a few recommendations for both brands Samsung and Amazon that will help them to meet with customer expectations and shape positive perceptions successfully;
This research does not put the question on the future investigations in this field but asks other researchers to grab more about what is happening inside these companies that affect the outer success and how overtime expectations of customers changes from one demand to the next. This research paper is limited to differentiate between expectations and perceptions of customers regarding smartphones brands Apple and Samsung that they used to purchase products and make decisions. That the research paper did successfully now the question that arises during this research paper is how Apple and Samsung target customers choices, what thing raise people to purchase products from iPhone or Samsung instead of affordability.
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Appendix A: Growth of companies has started with the spread of awareness about tech devices. Samsung's growth is noted adequate in Asia and Europe markets. Predictions about the growth of companies are high in coming future.
Appendix B: Samsung as a brand was originated from Seoul, South Korea. While Apple as a tech company was originated from the United States.
Appendix C: Ethical consideration
Appendix D: Although Apple, since its first launch brings much innovation in the smartphone industry. Still, past few years, there are no remarkable changes in the products of a company that affect the expectations of their customers. Some of the respondents of this survey for this research states that they wouldn't see any changes or improvement in the software of iPhone, but they are used to upgrade their handset. This shows that Apple is failing to come up with the expectations of its customers.
Appendix E: https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/THXQJQN
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