Coordinate system is defined as a system which determine the position of point on a spherical surface or planner surface Changing coordinate systems is required when integrating data from different sources into a common coordinate system.

- Cartesian coordinate system
- Polar coordinate system
- Cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems
- Homogeneous coordinate system

The projected coordinate system uses two axes: the x-axis, representing east-west and the y-axis, representing north-south. They intersect at the origin, (0,0). Locations are defined relative to the origin, using the notation (x,y), where x refers to the distance along the horizontal axis and y refers to the distance along the vertical axis..

A projected coordinate system inherits the components of a geographic coordinate system and also has:

**Projection:** The mathematical transformation used to convert from geographic coordinates to planar (projected) coordinates.

**Parameters:** Parameters used in the transformation. These parameters are specific to the projection.

**Units:** Linear measurement for coordinates on the plane.

The X-axis

The X axis is the horizontal number line of the graph.

The X axis is numbered with positive coordinates on the right and negative coordinates on the left with zero in the middle.

The Y-axis

The Y axis is the vertical number line on the graph.

The Y axis is numbered with positive coordinates on the top and negative coordinates on the bottom of the X axis.

Before plotting points on a graph, you first have to understand the X and Y axis.

The X and Y axis are number lines that run horizontally and vertically on the coordinate system.

An example of a set of coordinates for a point is (5,2), which is marked with the blue dot in the coordinate system on the right.

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