CA321 Contemporary Administrative Systems Assignment 2


Commonwealth Executive Masters in Public Administration



Marks: 100


  • There are four questions (essays) in this paper.
  • Answer All Questions in this paper.
  • Each question takes 25 Marks.
  • The answers must be written in an essay format and with proper referencing/citation. N.B. Marks will be awarded for good referencing.
  • For each question, write a minimum of 5 pages, plus a page of references.
  • Use a minimum of five different sources/references to answer each question.

Specific Instructions for Essay Writing

  • Communicate clearly and provide a source for every sentence that is not your own opinion. Learn to use multiple sources in one paragraph.
  • The ideal essay will have an introduction which outlines everything that is going to be discussed in the essay. It will also have some sub-headings of the issues that are going to be discussed. A discussion which has explanations and examples will give the students more marks. At the end, the essay must have a conclusion, which summarizes the issues that were discussed in the essay. Every academic essay must have references at the end.
  • In this regard, marks will be allocated in the following manner for each essay: 2 marks will go for a good introduction; and another 2 marks will go for a good conclusion. 15 marks will go for the logical presentation and discussion of the issues. And lastly 6 marks will go for overall presentation and proper referencing/citation procedures. There is no right or wrong answer; students are expected to show their analytical and critical thinking skills and ability to use multiple sources when addressing academic issues. (Total: 25 marks).
  1. What is meant by ethics? Explain why ethics and accountability are important in public administration. Discuss with the aid of relevant examples. (25 Marks)
  2. Explain why national budgets are described as being crucial to the democratic process with reference to both their symbolism and their pragmatic utility. Illustrate with relevant examples. (25 Marks)
  3. According to the doctrine of separation of powers, the arms of government must be equal, separate and independent from one another but some scholars argue that in Botswana the executive has extensive powers. Discuss with the aid of empirical evidence. (25 Marks)
  4. Is the involvement of civil society in the making of public policy a positive or negative development for public administration? Illustrate with relevant examples. (25 Marks)

NB. Students are required to use relevant case studies and journal articles.