Business Development and Professional Development
The values and vision of an organization play a great role in motivating the employees. The term motivation itself is derived from the term motive which is defined as something that prompts an individual to act in a certain manner or develop a given conduct (Beck 2013, p. 45). Motivation itself is a significant component in improving productivity, and thus every leader has to understand the visions and goals of the organization to be able to promote the efficiency of the organization through motivation. Beck (2013) defines motivation as the power in an individual that has the authority to drive him or her towards the satisfaction of the basic needs.
Notably, values that a business organization portrays shape its operational principles that are essential for directing how employees should conduct based on where’s the vision declaration outlines what the organization aims to be in future. It clearly defined goals and values, ensure that everyone in the organization is aware of the long term goals and short term goals as well as their expected code of conduct as employees of the organization (Gibbs 2012, p. 57). This creates a favorable environment in boosting the morale of employees since they know what is expected of them. Both the values and visions of an organization play a significant role in the motivation of employees in an organization. In this paper, I intend to discuss the values and missions about the motivation theories, describe various motivation theories as well as relate their application to the realization of the vision of a tourism based organization.
The importance of Values in Motivation of Employees.
Every organization has its stipulated values which aim at safeguarding the vision of the organization and ensure it’s achieved. Some of these values are; teamwork, honesty, excellence, commitment, recognition, professionalism, optimistic and creative.
Teamwork is one of the values that help in enhancing the inspiration within the employees since it creates a platform whereby workers listen to one another, check with others and have a different view of the performance of various chores within an organization. Personnel, therefore, support each other in an organization, work towards a common goal co-operatively regarding each and everyone’s views (Beck, 2013). This leads to a pleasant operational atmosphere full of fun and satisfaction. The employees, for that reason, will not require much supervision and will be able to deliver on time and meet deadlines (Gibbs 2015, p. 56). An organization operation based on teamwork also has set guidelines of conflict resolutions which are solved in the open to coming up with a fair result which all parties are comfortable with.
According to Maslow's and Herzberg theories, all these theories work at crafting motivation for the employees. Maslow's in his theorem talks about the social needs of the employees. In his thesis, he discusses the need for giving and in receipt of love, attachment, belonging, connotation and acceptance (Gibbs, 2012). This can only be possible if the organization creates a means of socialization to improve their employee's social needs. By embracing teamwork as a value, it ensures interactions and mingling which leads to friendships and association. Secondly, conflicts are resolved amicably and in an open manner, therefore, improving the social aspect of employees.
Professionalism and specialization as a value each employee acts with integrity, he is dependable and accountable and always delivering work of high quality. Secondly, the employees present their disagreement in a manner that portrays the real character and courtesy. The set guidelines perform tasks, and codes of conduct and each employee can deliver to the maximum in his area of specialization.
Maslow in his theorem discusses the aspect of specialization as a self-actualization need whereby there is a need to recognize one's potential for sustained self-development and continuous development of an individual's capability.
The vision defines the optimal image of the organization in the forthcoming bearing in mind the goals set, for them to be accomplished the organization values play a great role. The vision itself motivates the organization to deliver so as to realize the vision in time to come. (Gibbs 2012). The employees are focused on attaining the predicted goals. Working toward a definite goal will always motivate employees since there are benefits accrued when the objectives and goals are realized to them, the entire organization as well other stakeholders of the organization.
However, there is a simple vision statement that an organization can have such as; to offer affordable solutions to health care, to be the best beer brewing company in the United States or to be the only choice of preference to every consumer (Beck 2013, p. 44). However, there are other missions which are comprehensive in nature. For instance, one of the companies that are committed to the value of relentlessness is Epson Limited Company that pursuits the concept of innovation in its compactness. The company achieves this goal by practicing environments viability standards such as energy saving and high-precision technologies.
Motivation can be defined in simple terms as a general thought used to explain human behavior. These concepts give the reasons as to why people acted in a given way, their needs as well as their desires (Gibbs, 2012). Extensively these theories also explain why an individual would like to repeat a particular behavior and why he wouldn't want to repeat the behavior. Several theories discuss these motivation theories am going to give more preference to the theories discussed later.
Hertzberg’s Two Factor Theory.
This theory was established in the early 1950s by a man known as Fredrick Hertzberg. In his study, he found two factors that influence employee's motivation and satisfaction. (Fielder, 2015). He, therefore, classified them as motivation factors and hygiene factors. Motivation factors are those that motivate the employee to work harder at the workstation. These are such as enjoying your work, feeling reorganized and career advancement. The second factor is the Hygiene factors. The absence of these factors may lead to the lack of motivation and dissatisfaction. These factors include good salaries, company policies, and relationships with managers and core workers. (Gibb 2012, p. 78). According to Herzberg, both factors, motivation and hygiene factors work independently of each other. Though motivator factors increase the employee satisfaction, their absence does not mean dissatisfaction also the hygiene factors do not necessarily mean increased motivation and satisfaction but their absence lead to an increase in dissatisfaction.
Maslow’s Hierarch of needs theory. Maslow's as a psychologist developed the theory based on human motivation. The nitty-gritty of the theory being that each greatest basic wants and requirements have to be met before their motivation. Maslow's theorem is based on a hierarchy of 5 levels. These are and physiological level, safety level, belonging, self-esteem and self-actualization. (Beck, 2013). Physiological needs include food water and shelter which have to be meet for one to survive, safety level include the personal and financial security, the welfare and health. According to the pyramid of needs, one has to be in good health, secure and safe, one also has to have meaningful relationships and confidence. All these factors ensure development and growth of employees.
Hawthorne Effect. The Hawthorne effect was initially described by Henry A. Lands Berger in the 1950s. He observed a tendency of some workers to work harder when they knew that they are being observed. According to his theory, employees will work harder if they know they are being seen. (Gibbs 2012, p. 99). However, in his theorem he discourages hovering around bust suggest that the employees should be aware that you know what they are up to and you are following up on what they are doing.
Expectancy Theory. This theory suggests that people will apparently decide what to do or behave depending on the result they expected. However, at the workplace, it's uncertain that we work for longer hours expecting a pay rise. (Beck, 2013). Therefore about the expectancy theory, individual’s motivation is based on their expectations that they will receive the desired goal or reward if they are in the position of achieving the set target. However, these rewards are not necessarily in the form of the pay rise, bonuses or sponsored a night out for employees. Otherwise, rewards such as awards do motivate employees.
Equity theory. This theory argues that pay and conditions only are not the determinants in employee's motivation. This theory also explains how a pay increase may hurt the rest of the workforce. (Werner, 2011). When an individual feels that they are treated fairly, they are highly motivated unlike when they have a feeling that they are unfairly treated which makes them feel that they are susceptible to dissatisfaction and demotivation. There is this believe in equity theory that everyone values fairness which in result causes an individual to be motivated.
McGrath XY Theory. This theory was projected back in 1960 by an American psychologist known as Douglas McGrath’s. Douglas McGrath, writing about 'The Human Side of Enterprise,' insists that two theories (x and y) are mostly applied by firms in establishing their motivation and management functions. Previous studies by Werner (2011) shows that from classical framework theory X and Y theory will ever remain applicable towards the development of progressive administration techniques (Werner, 2011).
Authoritarian management style. (Theory x) This theory states that an ordinary person displeasures work through avoiding it by assuming that they lack the required task capacities (Gibbs, 2012). From this approach, it is evident that people should reward based on the consequences of their choice which will enable them to work toward the achievement of attaining the organizational goals. Beck (2013) eludes that ordinary human demands to be directed because of his or her nature tendency to avoid responsibility which is relatively unaspiring thus requires.
Participation Management Style (Theory Y). This theory is mainly based on six basic principles which state that motivation in workplace plays the nature of work play. Many people will have to practice self-control and professional skills in managing the organizational goals, exclusive of the external governance (Beck, 2013).
In industry, the intellectual potential of the average person is only relatively utilized. This theory sights people as assets that would be valued and developed. In practice managers who use this theory tend to seek participation in decision making and values results and relationship (Werner, 2011). They trust their staffs and are confident that they will deliver quality work and therefore they are at ease to delegate duties and empowering them. Additionally, they priorities in developing in recognition and appreciation as well as developing positive work environments.
Characteristics of X Theory Manager. Possibly the greatest evident features of McGrath XY Theory displays that the behaviors of executive directors and organizations using the tyrannical administration skills (Beck, 2015).Certain features of the x theory manager are; they are resulting driven, issuing of deadlines and ultimatums. This authoritative and traditional style of management assumes that people are lazy and are not willing to work and therefore it’s the work of the managers to compel to work.
This theory views people as a "cost" which has to be monitored and controlled all the time. The assumption in which this theory is based on is that the individual detest work and will avoid going to work (Gibbs, 2012). Secondly, another assumption is that people have to be coerced, controlled and directed and threatened so as to do work. Lastly, it urges that every person prefers to be directed and avoids responsibility. In this theory, managers are like "policemen."
The motivation theories have enabled the governance and boosting of morale in the tourism industry in that when employed managers are aware of the various ways of motivating employees. For example when considering the fact that employee’s morale cannot be boosted on remuneration and working conditions only. These theories explain on the various methods and ways of motivating employees in the industry. In my opinion, the employment of these theories in every level of management is crucial and therefore I advocate its use.
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