Scumbling: Scumbling is primarily a tone work with elements previously blocked in with a few light lines to control the composition. This technique includes smoothing, by use of finger or stump, or exclusive side – pencil scumbling. Emphasis is given to masses, values, shades, and shadows rather than to architectural detail. Scumbling is especially suggested to beginners because it will help them gain confidence in the arrangement of the composition in general and of values in particular.
Construction Materials: By running the pencil in more or less tortuous curves, the rendered may indicate the roughness of certain materials. By running the pencil obstinately in a certain direction, he may catch the overall flow and direction of certain textures.
Encourage: The general characteristics of tree, bush, and flower species may be achieved as easily by the scumbling technique as by any other. Such details as leaves must either be omitted or indicated only vaguely. Cars, people, animals, etc., are shown in their overall shape by continuous scumbling in determined areas and by the building up of tones.
Value Rendering: This technique may accurately be called the “realistic photographic method” of rendering, since the artist or architect executes his work by reproducing all visible tomes just as literally as he is able in black, grey, and white. As in a photogragh, the rendering shows not outlines but graphic values, or penciled areas, reproducing the tonal shapes of nature. Light is the most important factor in this rendering technique. To achieve the effects and contrasts desired, the architect governs the intensity of light by controlling the graphic values. The value Key or tonality of a rendering produces the first impression upon the observer and brings forth his emotional reaction to the rendering regardless of subject matter or composition. If the darkest and lightest valued in the key are only a few steps apart (minor key) then the rendering may convey-
If the darkest and lightest values are several steps apart (major key) then the rendering may represent strong contrast of
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