CPU is like a brain of the computer which process every instruction without knowing the type of it either its complex or simple the instruction has to go through the CPU. In other words we can say it is piece of hardware that carries out the instruction of the computer program. All the components of the CPU and behaviour is all about speed. Speed in terms of whenever we input something we want it should carried out fast. Thus as the technological advances we have largely been driven by the need for speed. CPU contain at least one processor which is actual chip in it that perform calculation. But now it is common for a single CPU to have at least two processors. A CPU having two processor core is known as dual cores. A computer may have more than one CPU each having multiple cores. Eg: A server with two hexa-core CPUs has total 12 processors.
Primary Function of CPU
The primary function is to process the instruction and it receives in the decoding data. While processing the data CPU perform the following steps:
- Fetch: In this step each instruction is stored in the memory with its address and processor takes the address number from the program counter and manage another instruction number next. Which track which instruction should execute next.
- Decode: In this step all executed programs now translated to assembly instruction and then assembly code is alter translated to binary instruction which is understandable by CPU.
- Execute: While executing instruction CPU can do three things: Do calculation with ALU, move data from one memory place to another or jump to different address.
- Store: The CPU must give feedback and the result is written to the memory.
Parts of CPU
CPU is encompasses of majorly three components
- Memory unit: In this unit can store instruction, data and intermediate results by supplying information to the other units of the computer when needed. Also known as internal storage or Random access memory (RAM). Size of the memory or storage unit effects speed, power and capability.
- Arithmetic logical unit(ALU): It contains two section arithmetic and logic section. Function of arithmetic is to perform operation like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division and the other complex operations that are done by making repetitive use of basic operation that we discussed above. Logic section supports all the logic operations like comparing, matching, merging and sorting of data.
- Control unit: It control all the operations of all parts of the computer but does not carry actual data processing operation. Responsible for controlling the transfer of data among others units of computer. Manage and as well coordinate with all the units of computer. Communicate with the input and output devices for transfer of data or results from storage. But does not process or store data main functioning is to manage data only.