Synthesis of carbohydrate from sunlight, water and carbon-di-oxide is by products, process called photosynthesis. This process is endergonic and anabolic process. Anoxygenic photosynthesis is done by bacteria which do not use water and oxygen. Here an example of anoxygenic photosynthesis shows first time in cynobacteria.
Chloroplast: It is the place where photosynthesis reaction takes place. In chloroplast, a special type of color pigment is fund called chlorophyll, is basically related to green color, this pigment is helpful to absorb light from sun, and it is physio-chemical process is called photosynthesis. In chloroplast, chemical compositions are: Protein 50-60% Lipids20-30% Chlorophylls 5-10%, Carotenoids 1-2% rests are RNA and DNA.
There are two types of Photosystems: a) Photosystem 1, b) Photosystem 2
Photosystem 1: This is a photosynthetic pigment system with electron carriers, which is located on both sides of non appressed part of grana thylakoids and stroma thylakoid. It have a chlorophyll a is more than chlorophyll b and carotenoid is comparatively less. P700 is a special type of chlorophyll a molecules which is in photocenter surrounded by chlorophyll b n carotenoid. It have also FeS, ferredoxin, plastoquinone, cytochrome complex, and plastocynine. IT takes part cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation both.
Photosystem 2: Pigments of this system is located in the appressed part of grana thylakoids, it have also chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid, and Chlorophyll a and b are in same content means equal almost. Carotenoid is more as comparatives to photosystem 1. P683 or P680 chlorophyll molecule is at photocenter, which is surrounded by other chlorophyll molecules. It is also containing Mn, Cl, quencher molecule Q, plastoquinone, cytochrome, plastocynine. It takes electron, which is released in photolysis of water. This electron passes over cytochrome complex, sufficient energy is released, which takes part in synthesis of ATP from ADP and iP. This is non-cyclic photophosphorylation.
Quantum Yield: It is a rate of photosynthesis can be measured by number of molecules produced by per quantum of light absorbed. And in release of one molecules of oxygen required number of photons, called quantum requirement. Quantum yield 12.5% for photosynthesis and 8 % quantum requirement is.
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