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Kinetic Theory of Gases
The kinetic molecular theory is based on the following postulates :
(i)A gas consists of a large number of minute particles, called molecules. The molecules are so small that their actual volume is a negligible fraction of the total volume (space) occupied by the gas.
(ii)The molecules are in a state of constant rapid motion in all possible directions, colliding in a random manner with one another and with the walls of the vessel.
(iii) The molecular collisions are perfectly elastic so that there is no net loss of energy when gas molecules collide with one another or against the walls of the vessel. The kinetic energy may be transferred from one molecule to another but it is not converted into any other form of energy, such as heat.
(iv) There are no attractive forces between molecules or between molecules and the walls of the vessel in which the gas is enclosed.
(v) The pressure of a gas is due to the bombardment of the molecules on the walls of the containing vessel.
(vi) The laws of classical mechanics (in particular the Newton's second law of motion) are applicable to the motion of gaseous molecules.
(vii) It may be emphasised that the above postulates are meant for an ideal gas only. These are only approximately valid for a real gas.
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