Chemistry Assignment Help with Gibbs Free Energy
Gibbs Free Energy, often denoted as G or ΔG, is a thermodynamic potential that measures the maximum reversible work that can be performed by a system at constant temperature and pressure. It's used to determine whether a chemical reaction or a physical process will be spontaneous (occur without external intervention) under given conditions.
The Gibbs Free Energy is defined by the following equation:
- ΔG is the change in Gibbs Free Energy
- ΔH is the change in enthalpy (heat content) of the system
- T is the absolute temperature in Kelvin
- ΔS is the change in entropy (a measure of disorder) of the system
The relationship between Gibbs Free Energy and spontaneity is given by the Gibbs Free Energy equation:
- If ΔG<0, the reaction is spontaneous in the forward direction.
- If ΔG>0, the reaction is non-spontaneous in the forward direction.
- If ΔG=0, the system is at equilibrium.
- A negative ΔG indicates that the reaction or process will proceed spontaneously in the forward direction.
- A positive ΔG indicates that the reaction or process will not proceed spontaneously in the forward direction.
- A ΔG of zero indicates that the system is at equilibrium, and there is no net change.
Gibbs Free Energy is a crucial concept in chemistry and thermodynamics as it helps predict the direction and feasibility of reactions and processes, aiding in the understanding of system behavior.
9.15 Cell Potential (EMF) and Gibbs free energy
When a cell reaction takes place in an electrochemical cell, the electrical energy generated by the cell can be quantitatively converted into work. So, the EMF of the cell is a measure of the maximum useful work that can be obtained under standard conditions. However, the electrical energy (electrical work) is equal to the product of EMF of the cell and the electrical charge that flows through the external circuit.
WMax = nFEcell
Where n = Number of moles of electrons transferred through the wire
F = one faraday i.e. 96500 coulombs
Ecell = EMF of the cell
According to thermodynamics, the free energy change (DG) for a process is equal to the maximum work that can be derived from a cell. Now since in a voltaic cell, work is done on the surroundings as electrical energy flows through the external circuit, such work by convention is taken as negative. Hence,
– WMax = DG
Therefore, from above equations we get
DG = – n F E0cell
The equation helps us to predict the feasibility of the cell reaction. For a cell reaction to be spontaneous, DG must be negative. This means that E must be positive for a spontaneous cell reaction.
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