Quotes:- When the words of another author are used exactly, they must be referred with proper page numbers.
Paraphrasing : - It is when you use the concept, idea or word of an another author. Note that only changing few words does not constitute the paraphrasing.
a) Referring general theme of a book or article : -
b) How to include page numbers : - In some cases like paraphrasing /referring to information/ an idea that can be located on a particular page, quoting/ referring to images, figures or data, or when a work is particularly long and page numbers might be useful for the reader.
c) Direct quotations:- Brief quotation can be included ( like 30-40 words) in text. A single quotation mark is used.
(Note : - Long quotations are given in separate paragraphs which are usually indented from the text margin and set in smaller type. Here no quotation marks are used.
d) Images, figures and tables : - Figure captions should be directly under the image and then followed by an in-text citation.
e) Referring to Specific vol. of a book : -
f) Sections, equations or other elements from a source : -
g) Personal communication : - These includes such as letters, memos, emails, facsimiles, interviews, informal conversations, telephone calls and lecture presentations. Initials are included. Full details of the date (day, month and year) should be provided in the text.
( Note that : - Personal communications are not included in the reference list.)
h) Encyclopedias and dictionaries (if no author is evident) : - There is no need of entry in reference list.
i) Editors : -
k) Unknown or uncertain dates: -
l) Anonymous : -
m) No personal author, sponsored by corporate body : - If any abbreviation are used, it should be cited in textual references. Then afterwards, it is should in all in-text citation and reference should provide a cross reference.
n) Newspapers : - i) If the authors is known, follow the rules listed above.
ii)For no authors, all details are provide in in-text citation.
( Note : Newspaper articles on web an in electronic database do not require entry in reference list.)
o) Citations from secondary sources : -
(Note: All the details of the author who has done the citing are provided in the reference list )
p) The bible: : -
q) Legislation : - i) The titles of pieces of legislation should be cited exactly. Neither spelling or capitalisation should be altered to suit the referencing style. Articles (a, an or the) should not be omitted.
ii) Most Acts and Ordinances have a short, formal title that can be used for citation purposes. First references should always cite this short, formal title in italics (exactly and in full) and subsequent references can be shown in roman script (not italics) with the date omitted.
iii) There are two ways of clarifying jurisdiction
a)Make it obvious in text.
b) Place information in parentheses and in roman script after the date.
iv) Acts of the parliaments of other nations should be presented in roman script.
v) Bills are presented in roman type because they are, in effect, 'unpublished' at that stage.
r) Legal authorities : -
i)The following details are necessary for the full in-text citation of legal authorities:
ii) In the citation of criminal cases in which the Crown is the prosecutor, "R" is used.
iii) However, if the Crown is the respondent in a criminal appeal, the order is reversed and The Queen given in full.
iv) A decision at law can appear in more than one report series.
s) Web documents, with known authors : - i)To cite a document from a Web site within the text of an assignment, editor or compiler and the date on which the document was created or last revised.
ii) The full address of a document within a Web site can be provided in the text. It is sufficient, however, to provide only the address of the Web site.
r) Web document with no author : - To cite a document from a Web site within the text of an assignment, where the author is unknown, give the title of the document followed by the date of creation or most recent revision.
s) Online images : - In text, cite author, year and page number (if available) - for example, AC Nielsen (2008) or (Adams 2006, p. 45). If there is no named author, use the image title or description (in italics) followed by the date. Figure captions should be directly under the image and then followed by an in-text citation.
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